I-Nootropics Enhle ye-Aniracetam Powder yokuphuculwa kwengqondo
I-AASraw ivelisa i-Cannabidiol (CBD) ipowder kunye ne-Hemp ebalulekileyo yeoyile ngobuninzi!

 

Yonke into malunga ne-Aniracetam Powder

 

  1.Yintoni i-Aniracetam Powder?
  2.Iyiphi i-Aniracetam Powder isetyenziswe?
  3. I-Aniracetam Powder isebenza njani?
  4.Siyiphi isiganeko sokuphila kwe-Aniracetam Powder?
  5. Ngaba i-Aniracetam Ipowder inxube amanzi?
  6.Iyiphi iNootropic esebenzayo?
  7. I-Aniracetam Powder Isisombululo
  8. I-Aniracetam Ipowder Powder
  9.Aniracetam Imiphumo yempembelelo
  Amava omsebenzisi we-Aniracetam Powder
  11Ukuphi ukuthenga i-Nootropics engcono kakhulu ye-Aniracetam Powder yokuphucula ukuqonda.

 


 

 

1. Yintoni iAniracetam Powder?aasraw

 

Nootropics Aniracetam Powder, I-CAS No.72432-10-1, isifaniso kwintsapho ye-racetam, eyaphuhliswa emva kwe-piracetam. Ngenxa yokuba i-Aniracetam ye-Powder ingena kwigazi ngokukhawuleza, iyaziwa ngokuba yi-racetam enamandla engakwazi ukuphucula imemori, ukuqonda kunye nokuphucula imimoya.

I-Aniracetam Powder yaziwa nangokuthi i-1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrilidinone, i-Ro 13-5057, i-CAS 72432-10-1, i-1 (4-methoxybenzoyl) -2-pyrrolidinone. Musa ukudibanisa nePiracetam powder.

 

Aniracetam Powder

 

Nangona zikhona ezimbalwa izifundo ze-Aniracetam ezigqithisiweyo eziphambili kunepiracetam powder, kukho ubungqina bokuphakamisa i-Aniracetam Powder inokunceda ekudaleni kunye nokusebenzisana okukhulu phakathi kweengcamango (njengokubeka iphazili kunye).

I-Aniracetam Powder iyingqayizivele ngenxa yemoya ekhethekileyo yokuphucula imiphumo. I-nootropic iyanciphisa ukuxhalabisa ngokusebenzisa intsebenziswano kunye ne-serotonin, i-dopamine kunye ne-choline receptors. Ngaphandle kokuxhalaba, kukho ubungqina bokubangela ukuba kube yindlela enye yokunyanga ukuxinezeleka, oku kuthiwa yindlela enkulu yokusebenza (indlela isebenza ngayo!)

Ngokugqithiseleyo ithathwa njengekhuselekile kwaye iphumelele kakhulu, i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza yindawo eyaziwayo eyaziwa ngokuba yi-nootropic eyayifumene kakhulu ngokuphandle ngokuphandle kunye nophando lwentlalo kwiminyaka yamuva.

 


 

2. Yintoni i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza esetyenzisiweyo?I-Aniracetam Imiphumo yomdakaaasraw

 

I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza ihlelwa njenge-ampakine nootropic kwiklasi yeRacetam. Ngenye yezilwanyana ezinamandla kakhulu eklasini, kwaye ingqalelo enkulu eYurophu (kubandakanywa nokufumana imvume njengemveliso yeyeza imithi), kodwa ayizange ivunyiwe yi-FDA e-United States.

I-Aniracetam Powder iye yabikwa ukuba ikhulise ukwanda kwamanani ekusebenzeni kwengqondo kunye nekhono. Oku kuqhutyiswa ngakumbi ngemiphumo yaso ekukhunjuleni imemori kwaye, mhlawumbi kubaluleke ngakumbi, iziphumo zayo eziphezulu kwizinga lokufunda. Ukongeza kuloo nto, isicatshulwa sibonakaliswe njenge-anxiolytic, isiza esinceda ukunciphisa uxhalaba.

Nakhu ukujonga kwiintlobo ezininzi ze-Aniracetam Ubunji obugqithisiweyo (i-Aniracetam ezinobuncwane obuphambili kwi-Powder / i-Aniracetam Imiphumo yePowder):

 

I-1) I-Aniracetam Ubunzima boMeyi Ingebenze ukuphucula ukukhubazeka kwengqondo

Izifundo ezininzi zokuqala zibonise ukuba i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza inokuba luncedo kubantu abanokuphazamiseka kwengqondo. Umzekelo, uphononongo luka-2012 olupapashwe kwi-CNS Neuroscience kunye noNyango lufumanise ukuba ukunyanga abantu abadala nge-Aniracetam Powder yonyaka kukhokelele kuphuculo olubonakalayo ekusebenzeni kwengqondo. Ukubandakanya abantu abadala abangama-276 abaneengxaki zokuqonda, uphononongo lufumanise ukuba i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza ineziphumo ezincedo kwiimvakalelo nakwimpilo-ntle yeemvakalelo.

Ukongezelela, uphando olusekelwe kumatshini olupapashwe kwi-Psychiatry ne-Clinical Neuroscience kwi-2000 lufumene ukuba i-Aniracetam Ubunzima obunqabileyo lunokunceda ukuphatha ukuphazamiseka kokulala okuhloswe nokuxhomekeka komqondo.

 

I-2) I-Aniracetam Ubunzima boMeyi Ingcono Ukuphucula Ubuthongo

I-Aniracetam Powder ibuyiselwe ukulala kwe-REM kunye nomjikelezo oqhelekileyo wokulala emva kweentsuku ezintlanu kwiirats eziphazamisayo. Iiliti zokulawula zabonisa ukunciphisa ukulala kwe-REM emini kunye nokulala okungapheliyo okungabikho kwe-REM ebusuku.

 

I-Aniracetam Ipowder yenza ngcono ukulala

 

I-3) I-Aniracetam Ubunzima boMeyi InguPhuculo lokuThalabisa

I-Aniracetam Powder inokunceda ekwenzeni ukuphazamiseka kwezixhala, ngokwe-2001 epapashwe kwi-European Journal ye-Pharmacology. Kwiimvavanyo kumagundane, abaphandi bafumene ukuba i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza inganceda ukunciphisa uxhalabisayo ngokuchaphazela inani lezonyango (iiklasi zamakhemikhali abandakanyekayo ekuthwaleni imiyalezo esuka kwiiseli zesigulane ukuya kwezinye iiseli).

 

I-4) I-Aniracetam Ubunzima Ngamanye Uncedo Ngomonakalo WeBrazil Ukubuyiswa

I-Aniracetam Powder iguqula imiphumo ye-fetal alcohol syndrome kwiincindi ezincinane ngokunyusa inani lama-receptors ase-AMPA kwi-hippocampus.

Kuhlolisiso lweeseli zengqondo zamagundane amancinci, i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza yandisa ukukhula kwee-neurons. Oku kubonisa ukuba i-Aniracetam Powder inokukwazi ukulungiswa kwezicubu zobuchopho emva kokulimala kwengqondo ebuhlungu ebangela ukuxhatshazwa kwe-neural.

I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza ibangela ukwanda kwesikhamo sokukhishwa kwamanzi kwiigundane ezithintela ukuhamba kwegazi kwingqondo, eyabangela izicubu ezonakalisiweyo kwaye zakhokelela ekugqibeleni. Oku kubangelwa ukubuyiselwa kweendlela zengxowankulu ezaphazamiseka ngokuvimba ukuhamba kwegazi kwingqondo.

I-Aniracetam Powder ilungiswe ukuziphatha kunye nenkumbulo kwiigundane ngokungahambi kakuhle kwegazi ukuya kwengqondo kunye nokungcola kwegesi ye-nitrogen.

 

I-Aniracetam Imiphumo yomdaka

 

I-5) I-Aniracetam Ubunzima boMeyi ngoMeyi Ukwandisa iNgcaciso

I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza yanda ukunyaniseka kwiimvumba ezonakaliswe yimichiza ebizwa ngokuba yi-apomorphine.

Ngamaqanda asebekhulile, i-Aniracetam Powder iyanciphisa umonakalo kunye nokuziphatha okuphazamisayo ngaphandle kokunciphisa ukuchaneka kokukhetha okanye isivinini kwisilingo somzimba ngokumodululwa kwama-receptors ase-AMPA kwingqondo ebonisa ukwanda kwinjongo.

 


 

3. I-Aniracetam Powder isebenza njani?aasraw

 

Nangona zonke iinkqubo zalo ezichanekileyo ziqondwa ngokupheleleyo, i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza ifundwe ngokubanzi, kwaye iboniswe ukuba ilandelelanise i-neurotransmitter elandelayo ebalulekileyo:

I-Acetylcholine - I-Aniracetam Powder ithuthukisa ukuqonda ngokubanzi ngokunyusa umsebenzi kulo lonke inkqubo ye-acetylcholine, edlala indima ebalulekileyo kwimemori, ingqalelo, isivinini sokufunda kunye nezinye iinkqubo zokuqonda. Isebenza ngokubophezela kwi-acetylcholine receptors, ukuvimbela ukungenwa kwemvume ye-receptor nokukhuthaza ukukhululwa kwe-synaptic ye-acetylcholine.

I-Dopamine kunye ne-Serotonin - I-Aniracetam Inkomfa eluhlaza iphucula amandla, ikhulisa amandla, iyanciphisa uxhalabisayo ngamanqanaba okwandisa i-dopamine kunye ne-serotonin. Ngokuzibophezela kwi-dopamine kunye ne-serotonin receptors, i-Aniracetam Powder iyakuvimba ukuphahlazeka kwala ma-neurotransmitter ebalulekileyo kwaye ibuyisele amanqanaba afanelekileyo kokubini, okwenza kube yinkqubo ephuculisayo yemoya kunye ne-anxiolytic (i-agent-anxiety-agent).

I-Glutamate Transmission - I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza iyasebenza ngokukodwa ekuphuculeni imemori kunye nokugcinwa kolwazi ngenxa yendlela ephakamisa ukuhanjiswa kwe-glutamate, i-neurotransmitter edlala indima ephambili kwi-activation neural. Ngokuzibophezela kunye nokukhuthaza i-AMPA kunye ne-receptor ye-kainate, i-receptors ye-glutamate edibene kakhulu nokugcinwa kwengcaciso kunye nokudalwa kweememori ezintsha, i-Aniracetam Powder iphucula i-neuroplasticity ngokubanzi kunye nexesha elide elinokubakho.

 


 

4. Iyiphi isiganeko se-Aniracetam Powder?aasraw

 

The isigamu-ubomi se-Aniracetam Powder I1 kwiiyure ze-2.5

 


 

5. Ngaba i-Aniracetam Powder yamanzi iyanyibilika?aasraw

 

I-Aniracetam Powder i-soluble enamafutha, nangona kubonakala ngathi ithathwa kwimeko yokuzila. Ukutya akubonakali kuyimfuneko.

 


 

6. Yeyiphi eyona nootropic isebenzayo?aasraw

 

1) I-Aniracetam Powder

I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza ngenye yeeNootropics ezininzi-ezibonakalisiwe-iintsapho ze-racetam-eziye zafundiswa amashumi eminyaka. Iiplanga zonke ziba ne-'core' efana ne-pyrrolidone-kunye nebala kwiindawo zabo ezigxininisayo ezivela kwizikhuthazo kuma-anticonvulsants. I-Aniracetam Powder ngokukhethekileyo iboniswe ukuba iyathandwa kwaye isebenzayo [4] enokuthi ibe ngenxa yesimo sayo sokuncibilika kwe-fat. Iinjongo eziphambili ze-Aniracetam Powder zibhekwa njengezongqinisiso zengqondo, ezifana nokunyuka komthamo wememori, amandla okufunda, kunye nokudala ukunyuka kugxininiso. I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza iphakathi kweklasi yeemveliso ezibhekwa njenge-Models-AMP-ezibizwa ngokuba zikwazi ukuchaphazela ubuchopho bakho be-glutamatergic. NgesiNgesi esilula; I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza isebenza ekuncedeni ukulawula iingxenye zengqondo yakho ezixhunyiwe kwiingcinga ezikhawulezayo, kunye namaxesha okuphendula ngokukhawuleza. Imilinganiselo yansuku zonke ephakanyisiweyo ye-Aniracetam Powder yi-750mg ngosuku, ithathwa ngokutya okanye amanqatha afana ne-coconut, ioli yeoli, okanye ibhotela. Abasebenzisi abaninzi bancomela ukuba le mveliso ithathe isongezelelo se-Choline, njenge-Alpha-GPC okanye i-CDP Choline ukunceda ukunciphisa umngcipheko weentloko ezichaphazelekayo. I-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza ichazwe ngabaninzi balabo bayithatha njengokuba banikezela ngamandla, amandla angqondo engcolileyo, kunye namandla anesimo esibucayi.

 

2) Noopept powder

Eli qela lidla ngokudibanisa ngqo namalungu eentsapho zeRacetam, kodwa ayenzi ngokwenene ngenxa yemeko engundoqo yokwakhiwa kweekhemikhali. Nangona kunjalo, i-Noopept powder icingelwa ukuba isebenze ngendlela efanayo ye-acetylcholinic ngaphakathi kwengqondo njengoMbutho, oku kubangele ukuba kufakwe ngokuqhelekileyo kwiingxoxo. I-Noopept yenye into eyenziweyo eyenzelwe ilungelo lobunikazi kwiRashiya kunye ne-United States, kwaye ngoku ithengiswa njenge-supplementary supplement-engeyiyo i-FDA evunyelwe ukonyango kwanoma yiphi imeko yonyango. Ukongezelela ekuvuseleleni kwengqondo yokugcinwa kwememori yokwandisa, ukunyuka kokufunda, kunye nokwanda kwenyameko yokuqonda, iNoopept inikezela ngepembelelo 'engcolileyo' yengqondo enokubonelela ngenzuzo kulabo bafuna iindlela ezincinci zokuxilonga okanye ukuxinezeleka. Iinkcukacha malunga nale ngqungquthela ziyahlukahluka, ezinye zifuna ukunyuka kwe-1000 kwenyuka kwempumelelo xa kuthelekiswa namaqumrhu afana nePiracetam, ngoxa abanye babona nje ukuba babini babonisa imiphumo efanayo.

 

3) I-J-147 powder 

I-J-147 yaphuhliswa ngo-2011, kwaye kuvavanyo lokuqala kwafunyanwa ukonyusa inkumbulo kuzo zombini iimpuku ezisempilweni kunye nezo zinesifo i-Alzheimer's, kwaye zikwazile ukukhusela ubuchopho kumonakalo ongaphezulu. Kwiminyaka embalwa kamva, iyeza lafunyanwa linezibonelelo ezibanzi ezichasene nokuguga nazo. Kodwa ngelixa uvavanyo lubonisa ukuba luyasebenza, abaphandi bebengaqinisekanga ncam ukuba kanjani, kwaye kunye neziyobisi phantse zilungele ulingo lomntu kubalulekile ukuba ucofe phantsi loo ndlela.

Kwisifundo esitsha, iqela le-Salk lafumanisa ukuba i-J-147 powder ibopha kwiprotein ebizwa ngokuba yi-ATP synthase, enoxanduva lokuvelisa iselfowuni "yemali yamandla" eyaziwa njenge-ATP. Le protein yaziwa ngokulawula ukwaluphala kwiintshulube kunye neempukane, kwaye abaphandi bafumanise ukuba ngokubopha kuyo iyeza likwazile ukuthintela umonakalo onxulumene nobudala kwingqondo.

 


 

7. I-Aniracetam Powder Isisombululoaasraw

 

Isilinganiselo esithandwa kakhulu kwi-Aniracetam Powder (i-Aniracetam ifayili ye-Powder dosage) ibonakala phakathi kwe-750 mg kunye ne-1500 mg. Ukuba uyidla ngaphantsi kweli dose, akusayi kuba nelungelo lokwenza ukusetyenziswa kwalo. Nangona kunjalo, ukusetyenziswa ngaphaya kwesi sixa kunakho amandla okuba nemiphumo emibi kunye nokunciphisa impembelelo emihle. Ekugqibeleni, kufuneka usebenzise amanani ahlukeneyo we-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza ukufumana umlinganiselo ofanelekileyo oya kufana nawe.

 


 

8. I-Aniracetam Ipowder Powder aasraw

 

Njengama-racetam, i-Aniracetam Powder isebenza kakuhle okanye idibene nezinye i-nootropics. Nazi ezinye ii-Aniracetam eziqhelekileyo ezigayiweyo zePowder zokucoca.

1) I-Aniracetam Ipowder kunye neConline Stack

Ukongezwa kwenkxaso ye-choline eyongezelelweyo idla ngokucetyiswayo xa uthatha i-racetam, njenge-Aniracetam Powder. I-Choline, isondlo esibalulekileyo esiyidlayo ekudleni kwethu, ngumcebisi we-neurotransmitter acetylcholine ejongene nemisebenzi eyahlukeneyo yengqondo njengememori.

Ukuxhasa umgangatho ophezulu, umthombo we-bioavailable we-choline eyongezelelweyo, njenge-alpha GPC okanye i-citicoline, unokuba nemiphumo ye-nootropic ngokwayo ngokuqinisekisa ukufumaneka kwezibhloko zokwakha zokwenza i-acetylcholine.

Le nkqubo ibaluleke ngakumbi xa ithatha iPowlacetam Powder eluhlaza njengoko isebenza ngenxalenye ngokuvuselela inkqubo ye-cholinergic. Ukuxhaswa kwe-choline kuqinisekisa ukuba kukho okwaneleyo kwindlela yakho yokwandisa iziphumo ze-Aniracetam Powder ngeli xesha unciphisa iziphumo eziqhelekileyo ezichaphazelekayo ezinokubangela ukungabikho kwe-acetylcholine kwingqondo efana nentloko.

 

2) I-PAO Stack

Ukugcinwa kwe-PAO, isichazi se-piracetam, i-Aniracetam Powder eluhlaza, kunye ne-oxiracetam, isitaki seklasi esibandakanya ukudibanisa ezi zintathu ze-nootropics ezithandwayo. Ukufakwa kwe-Aniracetam Ukukhupha nge-piracetam kunye ne-oxiracetam kuyomeleza imiphumo ebonelelwe kuyo yonke into kwi-stack kwaye inokwandisa ixesha elifumana ngayo inzuzo. Ukuquka i-piracetam inokuqinisa intsimbi ye-Aniracetam eneenkcukacha ezichasayo zokuxineka nokuxhalabisa. Njengoko kukhankanywe ngaphambili, kuyinto efanelekileyo yokufaka umthombo we-choline.

Ngaphambi kokuba uzame ukuxakeka oku kudibeneyo, kuyacetyiswa ukuba unamava ngamacandelo ngamnye kwisitaki ngaphambi kokudibanisa. Cinga nje lo mgca xa ujwayelene nemiphumo yazo nganye kunye nendlela oyenzela ngayo. Kwakhona ukhumbule xa ukudibanisa i-racetam, okanye i-nootropics ngokuqhelekileyo, kufuneka usebenzise ngaphantsi kunokuba usenokwenza umthamo xa uthathwa ngokwakho ngenxa yokuba ezininzi ze-nootropiki zineempembelelo ezifanayo.

 


 

9. I-Aniracetam aasraw

 

Iziphumo eziphambili ze-Aniracetam I-Powder iziphumo ezixhalabileyo, ukungazinzi kunye nokulala. Ezinye iimpembelelo ezingaphezulu kwi-dosage ziquka intloko, i-vertigo, isifo sohudo, kunye neengqumbo ezinamandla

 


 

10. Amava omsebenzisi we-Aniracetam Powder aasraw

 

Ukulandela iingcebiso eziqhelekileyo, uDavid uginye ipilisi ye-750 mg. Emva kweyure enye kuphela, uqala ukufumana iimvakalelo ezithile zokuba usephepheni kwaye ugxile ngakumbi. Kuqala, uyaphawula ukuba akaqinisekanga ukuba sisiyobisi, kodwa yimvakalelo, nangona kunjalo.

Malunga neeyure ezimbini, uDavid uxela iziphumo ezinomdla. Uyabona ukuba uziva unentambo kwaye akonwabanga. Utsiba-xhuma emsebenzini usiya komnye, kwinto ayibiza ngokuba "sisiphithiphithi sokwenza izinto ezininzi." Nangona engayithathi njengembi, ubuncinci iyothusa, kwaye kufanelekile ukuba uyiqaphele. Ngethamsanqa, akukho ziphumo zibi kumnqweno wakhe wokutya, njengoko egxibha iiamangile ngelixa erekhoda isiqendu.

Iiyure ezine ezinesiqingatha kwaye uDavid uneendaba ezinkulu. Uziva ngathi ugcinwe kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokugxila kunye nomdla kwinto ayenzayo. Akayi ku-100% aqinisekile ukuba yi-Aniracetam Powder ebangele iseshoni yomsebenzi ovelisayo, kodwa iziphumo zibaluleke ngokwaneleyo kangangokuba ubiza uvavanyo lokuba yimpumelelo ye-Round 1, kwaye kufanelekile ukunika enye into kungekudala.

 

bathenge i-nootropic powder

 


 

11. Apho ukuthenga i-Nootropics engcono ye-Aniracetam Powder yokuphuculwa kwengqondo aasraw

 

Ama-Nootropiki, xa kuthelekiswa nokuxutywa kwamanzi njengentsimbi yeentlanzi kunye ne-magnesium, enqabileyo kwaye enzima ukufumana kwiimeko ezininzi. Uninzi lwezityalo zeNootropics zendalo kunye nezendalo zingasifumaneka kwisitoreji sakho sokutya sezempilo, kwi-intanethi, okanye mhlawumbi ezinye izitolo zokutya ezifana ne-Whole Foods. Njengomthetho ngokubanzi wezithupha, ezi zinto azizona ezifanelekileyo zokufumana iimveliso ezikhoyo kwaye zinokuba nezixhobo ezininzi ezinokungcola, izithako ezingafunekiyo, kunye neengxelo ezingabhalwanga kwezinye iimeko. I-intanethi yisoloko isisiseko esiphezulu kwezi ntlobo zeemveliso, kwaye iimveliso zekhwalithi zilula kakhulu ukuzifumana. Sekunjalo, ngezinye ze-Nootropiki ezinamandla, zinamandla ngakumbi ukuzilandelela. Ngethamsanqa, ngokunyuka kwexesha elikufutshane ekuthandweni kweeNootropics, kuye kwabakho abathengisi abambalwa abaqulunqa kwiNootropics.

AASraw yinkampani ezinikezele kumgangatho, iinkcukacha, kunye neminikelo yokuveliswa kwemveliso eyenza ukufumana iimfuno eziphezulu zabaqeqeshi abasebenza kwimimandla enamandla engqondweni njengenkqubo kunye nobunjineli. Ukuzihlula ngokwazo kwiintlobo zokhuphiswano, i-AASraw Nootropics i-powder purity iqinisekisa akukho ngaphantsi kwe-98%. Ukuzinikezela ekuhlambulukeni kuvumela iimveliso ze-AASraw ukuqinisekisa ukugqithisa okukhulu kwimizuzu yonke.

I-AASraw inikezela ezininzi ezininzi I-Nootropics powder iimveliso, kunye nezinye izinto ezininzi ze-steroids (izinto ze-aasraw), i-hormone ye-sex powder, i-fat loss hormone powder, i-SRMAS powder ... njl. njengokuba. Ukongeza kokuzibophelela kwabo kumgangatho, i-AASraw ibonelela ngenkonzo ekhawulezileyo nekhuselekileyo. Ngokukodwa e-USA, i-AASraw ibonelela nge-USA ukuhanjiswa kwekhaya. Kodwa oko akuthethi ukuba nesitokhwe e-USA. Kuthetha ukuba, i-AASraw ine-arhente yokuhambisa e-USA, xa usenza iodolo nge-AASraw, ipasile yakho iya kuthunyelwa kwiarhente yokuhambisa i-AASraw e-USA kuqala, emva koko uyithumele kwidilesi yakho emva kokugqitywa kwesiko. I-arhente yokuhambisa i-AASraw iya kujongana nenkqubo yokukhutshwa kwesiko, akukho mfuneko yokusebenzisa umthengi ukufumana ulwazi. Ke, akukho nanye into echaphazela ukhuseleko kwidilesi yakho ngaphambi kokuba kugqitywe inkqubo yokukhutshwa kwesiko.

 


 

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