I-FDA evunyiweyo yeRegorafenib Nyanga umhlaza weColorectal Cancer - GIST - HCC
I-AASraw ivelisa i-Cannabidiol (CBD) ipowder kunye ne-Hemp ebalulekileyo yeoyile ngobuninzi!

I-Regorafenib

 

  1. Yintoni iRegorafenib?
  2. Kutheni le nto iRegorafenib yamkelwe yi-FDA?
  3. Isebenza njani iRegorafenib?
  4. Isebenza ngantoni iRegorafenib Main?
  5. Zeziphi izibonelelo zeRegorafenib ezibonisiweyo kwiZifundo?
  6. Zeziphi iingozi / iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga ezinokuthi ziziswe nguRegorafenib?
  7. Ndigcina njani kunye / okanye ndilahle ngaphandle iRegorafenib?
  8. Imikhombandlela yexesha elizayo yeRegorafenib
  9. isiphelo

 

Yintoni i I-Regorafenib?

I-Regorafenib (i-CAS: 755037-03-7), ethengiswa phantsi kwegama lophawu lweStivarga phakathi kwabanye, ngumlomo i-kinase inhibitor emininzi iphuhliswe yiBayer ejolise kwi-angiogenic, stromal kunye ne-oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). I-Regorafenib ibonisa imisebenzi echasene ne-angiogenic ngenxa ye-VEGFR2-TIE2 ye-tyrosine kinase inhibition. Ukusukela ngo-2009 kwafundwa njengokhetho olunokubakho kunyango kwiindidi ezininzi zethumba Ngo-2015 yayineemvume ezimbini zase-US zomhlaza womhlaza.

 

Kutheni le Regorafenib Kuvunywa yi-FDA

The IArhente yamaYeza yaseYurophu Ugqibe ekubeni izibonelelo zikaRegorafenib zikhulu kunemingcipheko kwaye wacebisa ukuba yamkelwe ukuze isetyenziswe kwi-EU. IKomiti iqaphele ukuba kumhlaza wesifo somhlaza izibonelelo ngokubhekisele ekwandiseni isigulana ukusinda zazithobekile, kodwa yajonga ukuba ibedlula ubungozi kwizigulana ekungekho ezinye iindlela zonyango esele zikho. Nangona kunjalo, xa unikwe iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga, i-CHMP ikubone kubalulekile ukufumana iindlela zokuchonga naziphi na iziqendwana zezigulana ezinokuthi ziphendule eStivarga.

Ngokubhekisele kwi-GIST kunye ne-HCC, iKomiti iqaphele ukuba umbono awukho kakuhle kwizigulana ezinesifo esiba mandundu ngakumbi kunyango lwangaphambili. I-Stivarga ibonakalisiwe ukuba iyalibazisa ukonyuka kwesi sifo kwezi zigulana. Kwizigulana ezine-HCC, oku kukhokelele kuphuculo kubude bexesha abaguli abaphila ngalo. Iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga zeStivarga ziyalawuleka.

 

Ingaba kwenzeka njani I-Regorafenib Umsebenzi? 

I-Regorafenib yincinci ye-molecule ye-inhibitor ye-membrane-bound and intracellular kinases echaphazelekayo kwimisebenzi yeselula kunye neenkqubo ze-pathologic ezifana ne-oncogenesis, i-tumor angiogenesis, kunye nokugcinwa kwe-tumor microenvelo. Kwi-vitro biochemical okanye i-cellular assays, i-regorafenib okanye eyona nto iphambili kwimetabolites yabantu-M-2 kunye neM-5 kuthintele umsebenzi we-RET, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, KIT, PDGFR-alpha, PDGFR-beta, FGFR1, FGFR2, TIE2, I-DDR2, i-TrkA, i-Eph2A, i-RAF-1, i-BRAF, i-BRAFV600E, i-SAPK2, i-PTK5, kunye ne-Abl kugxininiso lwe-regorafenib eye yafezekiswa ngokwezonyango. Kwiimodeli ze-vivo, i-regorafenib ibonakalise imisebenzi echasene ne-angiogenic kwimodeli ye-rat tumor, kunye nokuthintela ukukhula kwe-tumor kunye nomsebenzi we-anti-metastatic kwiimodeli ezininzi zeempuku ze-xenograft kubandakanya ezinye ze-colorectal carcinoma yabantu.

 

Yintoni i I-Regorafenib Isetyenziselwa ntoni?

I-Regorafenib liyeza lomhlaza eliqulethe into esebenzayo regorafenib powder. Isetyenziselwa ukunyanga le mihlaza ilandelayo:

Umhlaza womhlaza (umhlaza wamathumbu kunye ne-rectum) ethe yanwenwela kwamanye amalungu omzimba;

Tumor Isisu esiswini somzimba (i-GIST, umhlaza wesisu kunye nesisu) esele sisasazekile okanye singenakususwa ngotyando;

③ I-Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, umhlaza wesibindi).

I-Regorafenib isetyenziswa kwizigulana esele zinyangwe, okanye ezingenakunikwa, ezinye iindlela zonyango ezikhoyo. Ngomhlaza womhlaza, ezi zibandakanya i-chemotherapy esekwe kumayeza abizwa ngokuba yi-fluoropyrimidines kunye nonyango ngamanye umhlaza amayeza aziwa njenge-anti-VEGF kunye ne-anti-EGFR. Izigulana ezine-GIST kufanele ukuba ziye zazama unyango nge-imatinib kunye ne-sunitinib kwaye abaguli abane-HCC kufanele ukuba bazamile i-sorafenib ngaphambi kokuba baqale unyango ngeRegorafenib.

 

I-Regorafenib

 

Ziziphi izibonelelo ze I-Regorafenib zibonisiwe kwizifundo?

 Umhlaza ophezulu

Kuphononongo oluphambili olubandakanya abaguli abangama-760 abanesifo somhlaza esisifo se-metastatic colorectal esasiqhubekile emva konyango olusemgangathweni, iRegorafenib yafaniswa ne-placebo (unyango lwedummy) kwaye olona nyathelo lusebenzayo yayikukusinda ngokubanzi (ubude bexesha abaguli ababephila ngalo). Zonke izigulana zifumene ukhathalelo oluxhasayo, kubandakanya amayeza eentlungu kunye nonyango losulelo. Uphononongo lubonise ukuba iRegorafenib iphucule ukusinda, kunye nezigulana ezinyangiweyo ezihlala iinyanga eziyi-6.4 ngokomndilili, xa kuthelekiswa neenyanga ezi-5 kwabo banikwe i-placebo.

 

 GET(Amathumba aphezulu eSisu esiswini)

Kwesinye isifundo esiphambili, iRegorafenib yafaniswa ne-placebo kwizigulana ezili-199 ezine-GIST ezazisasazekile okanye zazingasebenzi kwaye zinikwa nolona nyango lixhasayo. Unonophelo oluxhasayo lubandakanya unyango olufana nokuphelisa iintlungu, amayeza okubulala iintsholongwane, kunye notofelo-gazi olunceda isigulana kodwa ngaphandle kokunyanga umhlaza. Uphononongo lubonise ukuba iRegorafenib ngononophelo oluxhasayo lwalusebenza ekwandiseni ubude bexesha lezigulana ezihlala ngaphandle kwesifo ukuba siye sisiba mandundu. Izigulana ezanyangwa ngeRegorafenib zihlala ngokomndilili kangangeenyanga ezi-4.8 ngaphandle kokuba izifo ziye zisiba mandundu ngokuthelekiswa neenyanga ezi-0.9 zezigulana ezithatha i-placebo kunye nenkxaso yenkxaso.

 

 HCC(Uphando lweHepatocellular Carcinoma)

Kwisifundo esiphambili esibandakanya abaguli abangama-573 abane-HCC ababebi kakhulu emva konyango nge-sorafenib, I-Regorafenib ngokuthelekiswa ne-placebo kwaye owona mlinganiso uphambili wokusebenza yayikukusinda jikelele. Zonke izigulana zifumene ukhathalelo oluxhasayo. Uphononongo lubonise ukuba iStivarga inyuse ubude bexesha abaguli abaphila ngalo lonke ixesha, abaguli baphathwa ngeRegorafenib baphila iinyanga ezili-10.6 ngokomyinge, xa kuthelekiswa neenyanga eziyi-7.8 kwabo banikwe i-placebo.

 

Zithini iingozi / iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga I-Regorafenib Unokuza?

Iukubonakala. I-Regorafenib inokukhokelela kumngcipheko ophezulu wosulelo ngakumbi kumchamo, impumlo, umqala nomphunga. I-Regorafenib inokukhokelela kumngcipheko ophezulu wosulelo lokungunda lwembumba yangaphakathi, ulusu okanye umzimba. Xelela umboneleli wakho wezempilo kwangoko ukuba ufumana umkhuhlane, ukukhohlela kakhulu okanye ngaphandle kokonyuka kwemveliso yetyhefu (isikhohlela), umqala obuhlungu, ukuphefumla kancinci, ukutshisa okanye iintlungu xa uchama, ukukhutshwa kwilungu lobufazi ngokungaqhelekanga okanye ukucaphuka, ukuba bomvu, ukudumba okanye iintlungu nakweliphi na ilungu lomzimba

Sukopha kakhulu. I-Regorafenib inokubangela ukopha, okunokuba kubi kwaye ngamanye amaxesha kukhokelele ekufeni. Xelela umboneleli wakho wezempilo ukuba ngaba unayo nayiphi na imiqondiso yokopha ngelixa uthatha iRegorafenib, kubandakanya: ukugabha igazi okanye ukuba ukugabha kwakho kubonakala ngathi yindawo yekofu, ipinki okanye umchamo omdaka, obomvu okanye mnyama (kujongeka ngathi ziitela), ukukhohlela igazi okanye amahlwili egazi, ukuphuma kwegazi okunzima ngaphezu kwesiqhelo, ukopha okungaqhelekanga kwilungu lobufazi, ukuphuma kwempumlo okwenzeka rhoqo, ukutyumka, kunye nobunzima bokuqaqamba.

A krazula isisu sakho okanye udonga lwamathumbu (ukugcotywa kwamathumbu). I-Regorafenib inokubangela iinyembezi esiswini sakho okanye eludongeni lwamathumbu ezinokuba nzulu kwaye ngamanye amaxesha zikhokelele ekufeni. Nxibelelana nomboneleli wakho wezempilo kwangoko ukuba ubona iintlungu eziqatha okanye ukudumba kwindawo yakho yesisu (isisu), umkhuhlane, ukugodola, isicaphucaphu, ukugabha, okanye ukuphelelwa ngamanzi emzimbeni.

A Ingxaki yolusu ebizwa ngokuba kukuphendula kolusu ngeenyawo kunye nokukhawuleza kolusu. Ukuphendulwa kwesikhumba seenyawo zakho kuqhelekile kwaye ngamanye amaxesha kunokuba nzima. Xelela umboneleli wakho wezempilo kwangoko ukuba ubomvu, iintlungu, iblisters, ukopha, okanye ukudumba ezintendeni zezandla zakho kunye nasezinyaweni zeenyawo zakho, okanye irhashalala elibi.

Huxinzelelo lwegazi. Uxinzelelo lwegazi kufuneka luhlolwe veki nganye kwiiveki zokuqala ezi-6 zokuqala iRegorafenib. Uxinzelelo lwegazi kufuneka luhlolwe rhoqo kwaye naluphi na uxinzelelo lwegazi oluphezulu kufuneka lunyangwe ngelixa ufumana iRegorafenib. Xelela umboneleli wakho wezempilo ukuba uneentloko ezibuhlungu, ukukhanya okukhanyayo, okanye utshintsho kumbono wakho.

Dukunciphisa ukuhamba kwegazi ukuya kwintliziyo kunye nokuhlaselwa yintliziyo. Fumana uncedo olukhawulezileyo ukuba unentlungu esifubeni, uphefumla kancinci, uziva unesiyezi, okanye uziva ngathi uyagqitha.

A imeko ebizwa ngokuba ibuyiselwe umva leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS). Fowunela umboneleli wakho wezempilo kwangoko ukuba unentloko ebuhlungu, ukuxhuzula, ukudideka, utshintsho kumbono, okanye iingxaki zokucinga

RI-isk yeengxaki zokupholisa amanxeba. Amanxeba anokungapholi ngokufanelekileyo ngexesha lonyango lweRegorafenib. Xelela umboneleli wakho wezempilo ukuba ucwangcisa ukwenza naluphi na utyando ngaphambi kokuqala okanye ngexesha lonyango kunye neRegorafenib.

▪ Kuya kufuneka uyeke ukuthatha iRegorafenib ubuncinci kwiiveki ezi-2 ngaphambi kotyando olucwangcisiweyo.

Your Umboneleli wakho wezempilo kufuneka akuxelele ukuba ungaqala nini ukuthatha iRegorafenib kwakhona emva kotyando.

Iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga eziqhelekileyo kwiRegorafenib zibandakanya iintlungu kubandakanya indawo yesisu (isisu); ukudinwa, ubuthathaka, ukudinwa; urhudo (ukuhamba rhoqo okanye ukungahambi kakuhle); ukunciphisa ukutya; usulelo; ukutshintsha kwelizwi okanye ukungxola; ukwanda kwiimvavanyo ezithile zesibindi; ifiva; ukudumba, iintlungu, kunye nobomvu bomgubo emlonyeni wakho, emqaleni, esiswini, kunye namathumbu (mucositis); kunye nokwehla kobunzima.

 

Ndigcina njani kunye / okanye ndilahle ngaphandle iRegorafenib?

Gcina iipilisi kwisikhongozelo sokuqala kubushushu begumbi. Gcina ikepusi ivalwe ngokuqinileyo. Musa ukuthatha ityhubhu ye-antimoisture okanye ipakethi.

♦ Lahla nayiphi na indawo engasetyenziswanga kwiiveki ezisi-7 emva kokuvula ibhotile.

In Gcina kwindawo eyomileyo. Musa ukugcina kwigumbi lokuhlambela.

Gcina zonke iziyobisi kwindawo ekhuselekileyo. Gcina zonke iziyobisi kude nokufikelela kubantwana nakwizilwanyana zasekhaya.

Ow Zilahle kude iziyobisi ezingasetyenziswanga okanye eziphelelwe lixesha. Musa ukugungxula indlu yangasese okanye ugalele amanzi ngaphandle kokuba uxelelwe njalo. Jonga kunye nosokhemesti wakho ukuba unemibuzo malunga neyona ndlela yokulahla iziyobisi. Kunokubakho iinkqubo zokubuyisa iziyobisi kwindawo yakho.

 

I-Regorafenib

 

Izikhokelo zekamva of I-Regorafenib

Kwiminyaka emihlanu emva kokuvunywa kwayo, i-regorafenib ihlala iyeza elinokusingathwa konyango okulinganiselweyo. Ukusetyenziswa okuvunyiweyo kumhlaza onombala, i-GIST kunye ne-HCC yenzelwe kuphela isifo se-metastatic. Idityaniswe neendleko eziphezulu, okwangoku zincinci izibonelelo zeklinikhi kwizigulana. Ngapha koko, kwenziwa izilingo ezahlukileyo ukuze zichazwe njengonyango olutsha. Imikhombandlela yexesha elizayo ngeli chiza ibandakanya ukuphathwa kwe-osteosarcoma. Uvavanyo lwakutshanje olulawulwa yi-placebo, oluvavanya iimfama kabini eFrance lubonakalisile ukwanda kokungahambeli phambili okuqhubekayo ngaphandle kwesibakala se-3 kwizigulana ezine-metastatic osteosarcoma ezingaphumelelanga kulo lonke unyango. Ngokunyanzelayo, ezi datha zintsha zibonisa inzuzo kwizifo ze-metastatic eziphambili njengendawo yokugqibela, ngokufanayo nakulo lonke usetyenziso lwangoku oluvunyiweyo.

Idatha yamva nje icebisa ukuba kunokwenzeka ukuba kube nokuhlangana phakathi kwe-regorafenib kunye ne-immune checkpoint inhibitors, njengoko kubonisiwe kuvavanyo lwe-REGONIVO. (I-38% kumhlaza wesisu kunye ne-44% kumhlaza omnyama) kunye neeprofayili ezinokubekezeleleka kwiqela elidibeneyo. Esi sibonelelo sinomdla sinokubangelwa kukuncitshiswa kwe-macrophage enxulumene nethumba yi-regorafenib, inyusa ubuntununtunu be-tumour kwi-nivolumab. Okwangoku, ityala le-REGONIVO lesigaba II liyaqhubeka kwaye kungekudala linokuxhasa le hypothesis. Ukongeza, inqanaba lesibini lokuvavanywa kweklinikhi libonakalisile ukuba i-regorafenib ingaphezulu kwe-lomustine kwi-glioblastoma ehambele phambili kunye novavanyo lwe-REGOMA, e-Italiya, lubonakalise ukuphucuka okubonakalayo kubomi ngokubanzi (umngcipheko wengozi 36; 0.50% yexesha lokuzithemba 95-0.33; I-log-rank p = 0.75) xa kuthelekiswa nonyango lwe-lomustine.

Izifundo eziQinisekisiweyo zenziwe nge-regorafenib kunye ne-cetuximab kunyango lomhlaza we-metastatic colorectal cancer. Iziphumo ezifunyenwe kulandelelwano lokusetyenziswa kwala machiza kunyango lwalo mhlaza zicebisa ukuba eyona ndlela ifanelekileyo iya kuba kukulawulwa kokuqala kwe-regorafenib elandelwa yi-cetuximab, eyahlukileyo kwiprotocol esemgangathweni esetyenziswayo ngoku. Iziphumo zibonise ukuphucuka kokusinda kwezigulana kwaye isibonelelo sibonakale siqhutywa ikakhulu ngumsebenzi omkhulu we-cetuximab kune-regorafenib njengonyango lwesibini.

UHLANGANISO Uvavanyo lwe-regorafenib monotherapy kumhlaza wesisu kubonise ukuba eli chiza linyamezelwe kakuhle kwaye akukho monakalo kubomi bezigulana xa kuthelekiswa nabo bafumene i-placebo kwaye khange kubonakale ngathi kunesiphumo esibi kakhulu kwezo parameter kubutyhefu. Iiprojekthi zophando zaqaqambisa ukuba amanqanaba asisiseko entlungu, ukutya, ukuqhinwa, kunye nokusebenza komzimba kwafunyanwa njengezinto ezibalulekileyo zokuxela ukuba usinde. Kananjalo, olu vavanyo lubonakalise ukuba i-regorafenib yayinomsebenzi obonakalayo kwindawo yokugqibela yokuphumelela kokuqhubela phambili. Uvavanyo lwe-REDOS lwenziwa ukusuka kwi-2015-2018 kwaye ababhali babonisa ukuba isicwangciso sokunyuka kwethamo se-regorafenib yenye indlela enokufezekiswa kwisicwangciso esifanelekileyo se-regorafenib ye-dosing ye-160 mg / ngosuku, ngakumbi kwizigulana ezinomhlaza we-metastatic colorectal cancer. Kwafunyaniswa ukuba izigulana ezanyangwa ngokunyuka kwethamo zinamaxesha amaninzi onyango lwasemva kokuqhubela phambili kunye nokusinda ngamanani ixesha elide.

Ngokumalunga nokunyamezeleka kwe-regorafenib xa uqeshelwe ukunyanga umhlaza we-colorectal, idatha encinci iyafumaneka kunyamezelo kubantu abadala, kwaye isigqibo kufuneka senziwe kuthathelwa ingqalelo isibonelelo sokuphila esincinci kunye neprofayili yetyhefu. Ukujonga eli chiza kunyango lwe-HCC, iiprojekthi zophando zigxininisa ukuba kukho iprofayili yokunyamezelana eyamkelekileyo kwaye i-regorafenib ibonelela ngenzuzo yokuphila. Unyango lwe-GIST, Ababhali abaliqela bathi i-regorafenib inyamezeleke kakuhle ngaphandle kwetyhefu engalindelekanga.

Olunye uphando luyafuneka ukumisela ukuba zeziphi izigulana ezinokuxhamla kakhulu kwesi siyobisi. Ukusukela ngo-2019, izilingo eziqhubekayo ziyavavanya ukuba ngaba i-regorafenib ingaziphucula na iziphumo kwizithambo ze-sarcomas, ezinje nge-osteogenic sarcoma, liposarcoma, i-Ewing sarcoma kunye ne-rhabdomyosarcoma.

 

isiphelo

Ngaphandle kweminyaka emi-5 yokuvunywa kunye ne-pharmacodynamics ethembisayo, i-regorafenib ibonakalise umda, kodwa ngokwezibalo zibalulekile, izibonelelo zeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zamathumba aqinileyo. Izibonakaliso ezinelebheli ziquka umhlaza wecolorectal cancer, GIST kunye ne-HCC. Uvavanyo oluphezulu lwesigaba II lubonakalise ukuphucuka okubonakalayo ekusindeni komhlaza wesisu, i-glioblastoma kunye ne-osteosarcoma, enokuthi ibonakalise ukufakwa kwexesha elizayo kwizalathiso ezinelebhile.

Unyango oludibeneyo kunye ne-immune checkpoint inhibitors lubonakalisiwe njengoluncedo kwizilingo zesigaba sokuqala, kwaye ulingo lwesigaba II luyenziwa. Okwangoku, i-regorafenib isaphandwa kwezinye iintlobo zomhlaza. Iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga ezininzi zinokusetyenziswa njengophawu lweziphumo ezingcono ngonyango. Phakathi kwabo, i-hand-foot syndrome kunye ne-hypothyroidism zezona zinxulumene kakhulu nokusinda okuphuculweyo. Isishwankathelo, izifundo zibonise ukuba i-regorafenib inokuphucula kakhulu ukusinda nokunyamezeleka okwamkelekileyo kwizidumbu eziqinileyo.

 

isingqiniso

[1] I-Krishnamoorthy SK, i-Relias V, i-Sebastian S, okqhubekayo. Ulawulo lweetyhefu ezinxulumene regorafenib: uphononongo. Unyango ngonyango uGastroenterol. 2015; 8: 285-97.

[2] I-Thangaraju P, Singh H, Chakrabarti A.Regorafenib: inoveli tyrosine kinase inhibitor: uphononongo olufutshane lwamandla alo onyango kunyango lwe-metastatic colorectal carcinoma kunye ne-gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Umhlaza waseIndiya J. Ngo-2015; 52: 257-60.

[3] IGrünewald FS, iProta AE, iGiese A, iBallmer-Hofer K.Uhlalutyo lomsebenzi wolwakhiwo lwe-VEGF receptor activation kunye nendima ye-coreceptors kwisignali ye-angiogenic. I-Biochim Biophys Acta Iiproteni zeProteni. Ngo-2010; 1804: 567-80.

[4] UShinkai A, Ito M, uAnazawa H, et al. Ukwenza imephu yeziza ezichaphazelekayo kumanyano lwe-ligand kunye nokwahlulwa kwendawo yedomeyini ye-kinase yokufaka i-receptor ene-domain ene-vascular endothelial factor factor. J Biol Chem. Ngo-1998; 273: 31283-8.

[5] UFuh G, uLi B, uCrowley C, et al. Izidingo zokubopha kunye nokusayina i-kinase domain receptor ye-vasot endothelial factor factor. J Biol Chem. Ngo-1998; 273: 11197-204.

[6] UEriksson A, uCao R, uRoy J, et al. Iprotheni encinci yokubopha ye-GTP Rac ngumlamli obalulekileyo wokukhula kwe-vascular endothelial factor-indothelial fenestrations kunye ne-vascular permeability. Ukujikeleza. 2003; 107: 1532-8.

[7] UAscierto PA, uKirkwood JM, uGrob JJ, et al. Indima ye-BRAF V600 kuguquko kwi-melanoma. J Guqula iMed. Ngo-2012; 10: 85.

[8] U-Emuss V, uGarnett M, uMason C, uMarais R. Utshintsho lwe-C-RAF lunqabile kumhlaza womntu kuba i-C-RAF inomsebenzi ophantsi we-kinase xa kuthelekiswa neB-RAF. Umhlaza Res. 2005; 65: 9719-26.

[9] UBruix J, uQin S, uMerle P, et al. I-regorafenib yezigulana ezine-hepatocellular carcinoma eziqhubele phambili kunyango lwe-sorafenib (i-RESORCE): i-randomised, blind-blind, control-placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. ILancet. Ngo-2017; 389: 56-66.

[10] UMartin AJ, uGibbs E, uSjoquist K, et al. Umgangatho wobomi obunxulumene nempilo onxulunyaniswa nonyango lwe-regorafenib kunyango lwe-adenocarcinoma ephambili yesisu. Umhlaza wesisu. 2018; 21: 473-80.

[11] UHoo YA, uSyed YY. Regorafenib: uphononongo kwi-hepatocellular carcinoma. Iziyobisi. 2018; 78: 951-8.

[12] Yin X, Yin Y, Shen C, Chen H, Wang J, Cai Z, et al. Umngcipheko weziganeko ezigwenxa ezinxulunyaniswa ne-regorafenib kunyango lwamathumba aqinileyo aphezulu: uhlalutyo lweemeta zezilingo ezilawulwa ngokungahleliwe. Iithagethi zeOnco Ther. 2018; 11: 6405-14.

[13] ILombardi G, De Salvo GL, iiBrandes AA, et al. I-regorafenib xa ithelekiswa ne-lomustine kwizigulana ezinesifo esibuyile se-glioblastoma (i-REGOMA): i-multicentre, ileyibhile evulekileyo, ilandelwe, ilawulwa, inqanaba lesibini. ILancet Oncol. Ngo-2; 2019: 20-110.

[14] Bekaii-Saab T. Ukujonga ngokusondeleyo kwi-regorafenib. KwiKlinikhi Adv Hematol Oncol. 2018; 16: 667-9.

[15] UYoshino K, uManaka D, uKudo R, et al. Umhlaza we-Metastatic colorectal cancer uphendula kwi-regorafenib kwiminyaka ye-2: ingxelo yetyala. J Med Ityala Rep. 2017; 11: 227.

0 azithandayo
2341 Views

Ungathanda

Amagqabantshintshi zivaliwe.