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I-Nootropics Enhle ye-Aniracetam Powder yokuphuculwa kwengqondo ... AASraw

Ulwahlulo lweeDrugs

1.Armodafinil
2.Modafinil
3.Noopept
4.J147
5. Phenylpiracetam
6.Sunifiram
7. Bromantane


Nootropics ligama le-Smart-Drugs e-Silicon Valley. Ba thembisa ngakumbi ukusebenza kwengqondo kwaye ngoku basasazeka ngokukhawuleza ukusuka kwi-US Coast Coast. Iingcali zi lumkisa malunga neengozi zecawa elitsha.

I-Noootropics, eyaziwa nangokuthi zi yobisi, ukukhunjulwa kweememori, kunye nabaphuculisi bokuqonda, izidakamizwa eziphakamisa imisebenzi ethile yengqondo (imisebenzi kunye nobuchule beengqondo) ezifana nokuqonda, imemori, ingqiqo, ukudala, ukukhuthaza, ukugxininisa kunye nokugxininisa. Kwiimeko ezininzi iimeko zesenzo se-nootropics aziwa. Kukholelwa ukuba i-nootropics isebenza ngokutshintsha ukufumaneka kwezixhobo ze-neurochemical kwiingqondo (i-neurotransmitters, i-enzymes kunye nama-hormone), ngokuphucula okanye kusebenze ingqondo yesifo sengqondo, okanye ngokukhuthaza ukukhula kwe-neuronal (neurogenesis).


Imbali yamaDrugs

Igama elithi "nootropic" lenziwe kwi-1972 ngudokotela waseRomania uKorneliu E. Giurgea (1923-1995). IGiurgea yabandakanyeka ekuqulunqweni kwezinto ipiracetam kwi-1964, eyiyo enye yeeNootropic ezaziwa kakhulu. Unyule eli gama ngokufana nesigxina kwigama elithi psychotropic.

UGiurgea wayekhonza njengoNjingalwazi we-Neurophysiology kwi-Faculty of Medicine eBucharest naseBelgium kwi-1963 yaba yiNtloko ye-Neuropharmacology e-UCB.

Ngokutsho kweGiurgea, i-nootropiki yizidakamizwa ezabelana ngempawu ebalulekileyo ye-piracetam, oku:

1. Ukusebenza ngokuthe ngqo kwimisebenzi yokudibanisa yengqondo, leyo idlulisela isiphumo esifanelekileyo kwingqondo.
2. Lo msebenzi kufuneka ukhethe i-telencephalon kwaye ungabonakali kwamanye amanqanaba engqondo.
3. Ngoko ukuze wenze umphumo wokubuyisela kwiingxaki zomsebenzi ophezulu wengqondo.

Nayiphi na into eyenziwa yi-nootropic ngokwemiqathango yeGiurgea ingakwazi ukuphucula ukuqonda. Isisombululo esinempembelelo enengqondo yinto kuphela ye-nootropic ngokwemvo yenkcazo ukuba nayo inefuthe le-neuroprotective kwaye ayikho into enobuthi. Ukuvuselela ubuchopho njenge-amphetamine akuzona izithunywa ze-nootropic ngengqiqo engqongqo, nangona zinokuvelisa ukuphuculwa kwengqondo, njengoko zinokudityaniswa nemiphumo enobungozi.


Indlela yokwenza

Uphononongo kwimiphumo ye-nootropics uye wabonisa imiphumo eyahlukeneyo ye-pharmacological; kodwa uhlobo olulodwa oluphambili olwenzayo isigaba sonyango lonke aluqhelekanga. Zonke iinjongo zichaphazela umsebenzi owenziwe yi-cholinergic: Ukwanda kwe-choline uptake kwandisa imveliso kunye nokuthengwa kwe-acetylcholine, eyenza ama-muscarinic ne-nicotinic receptors. I-Piracetam iphinda ikhulise ubuninzi be-acetylcholine receptors ye-cortex yangaphambili nge-30% -40%.

I-7 Best Nootropics (i-Smart Drugs) kwimarike yeNoopept

Ukunikezwa kwamandla ngendlela ye-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ibaluleke kakhulu ekusindekeni kwengqondo. Iiseli zobunongo kufuneka zithole i-ATP yazo kwi-glucose kunye ne-oksijini kwaye ayikwazi ukufumana i-ATP kwezinye iiseli. IPiracetam ikhuthaza umsebenzi we-adenylate kinase enzyme, eguqula i-adenosine diphosphate (ADP) kwi-ATP kunye ne-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Oku kunciphisa ukuthotywa kwe-ATP ingcinezelo kwingqondo kwi-hypoxia kwaye ikhawuleze ukubuyisela kwi-hypoxia, ngenxa yokuphucula i-glycolysis ye-oxidative.

Enye indlela yokwenza isenzo sokunciphisa ukuhlanganiswa kweplatelet kunye nokuphucula kwimizimba yamachiza emzimbeni, mhlawumbi ngokubandakanya i-phospholipids kwidibaniselwano.

Iziphumo eziqhelekileyo zolu hlobo nootropics ziquka:

• Ukuvusa ngokweqile okanye ukwesaba
• Ukungazinzi kunye nokucasula kubhekisela kubudlova
• ukunyakaza komzimba
• Ukuxinezeleka nokuxhalabisa
• Ukuqhawula okanye ukulala
• Ukubangela ukuhlanza
• ukukhupha
• ubuhlungu besisu
• Uhudo okanye ukufumana ubunzima
Ngamanye amaxesha kukho ukungcola okanye ubuthathaka, ukunciphisa uxinzelelo lwegazi okanye ukwanda kunye nokunyuka kwe-libido.

Iimpawu ezinempawu ezilandelayo zinikezelwe kwi-nootropics:

• Ukusebenza komsebenzi wengqondo kunye nomphumo oshukumisayo kwingqondo
• Impembelelo kwi-cerebrum, ezinye iindawo zengqondo ayinakuchaphazeleka
• Ukuphuculwa kokufunda
• Impembelelo kwimemori
• Ukuqinisa iindlela zokuziphatha nokufunda
• Ukwandisa ukusebenza kweendlela zokulawula ze-cortex yecerebral
• Musa ukusibekela ingqalelo imiphumo yezobisi eziphathekayo
• Zimbalwa iziphumo zecala, utywala obuphantsi


Imarike yamahhala nootropics

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje, i-market for nootropics iye yanda. Izinto ezininzi zinemvume yesikhashana nje kuphela okanye impembelelo yazo ayizange iboniswe. Ngamanye amaxesha uphando lwexesha elide kwimiphumo emibi alukho. Kukho ukucaca okucacileyo phakathi kweziyobisi kunye nezinye izinto. Ngenkcazo, nayiphi na into echaphazela ngokufanelekileyo ukusebenza kwengqondo yintsebenziswano ye-nootropic ukuba inesiphumo se-neuroprotective kwaye ayinayo isetyhi. Ngaloo ndlela, izinto ezifana ne-amphetamine azikho phakathi kwama-nootropiki njengoko inetyhefu.

Into eqhelekileyo ye-nootropics kukuba bonke baxhasa kwaye bakhulisa i-neurotransmitters kwingqondo kunye neendlela zabo. "Amandla engqondo" yi-adenosine triphosphate (i-abk. ATP), eyenza iiseli zengqondo zisuka kwiswekile kunye ne-oksijini. Ngokomzekelo, i-piracetam yenza lula kwaye ikhulise imveliso ye-ATP phantsi kwimeko yokungabikho kwe-oksijini. Kananjalo kwandisa ukuhamba kwegazi ukuya kwingqondo, nokusetyenziswa kwe-oksijini kunye ne-sugar metabolism.

I7 Best Nootropics(IMicrodrug) kwiimarike ze-2018

Ulwahlulo lweeDrugs

I-Nootropiki inokuhlatyathwa ngokweendlela ezisetyenziswa ngayo:


1. Armodafinil

I-Armodafinil isilwanyana esivela kwiqela leengqondo ze-psychostimulants, ehluke kakhulu kwi-molecular molecular structure from the amphetamine-based stimulants. Imelela (R) -omantiomere we-racemate modafinil.

Ukubonisa

Isetshenziselwa ukuhlaselwa, ukuxinezeleka, ukulala kwe-idiopathic okanye ukulala ngokugqithiseleyo ngexesha lokulala.

Contraindicatio

1. Ukukhubazeka ukulungelelanisa kule mveliso.

2. I-hypertrophy ye-ventricular hypertrophy, i-ischemic electrocardiographic change, intlungu yesifuba, i-arrhythmia okanye imbonakalo yekliniki ye-mitral valve ne-recent myocardial infarction, izigulane ezingabonakaliyo ze-angina zikhutshaziwe.

Ukuqapha

1. Isiza kufuneka siqalwe ukusuka kumncinci omncinci (50 ~ 100mg nsuku zonke), 50mg zonke ii-4 ~ 5 iintsuku, de kube iqondo elifanelekileyo (200 ~ 400mg nsuku zonke).
2. Umthamo wezigulane ezinobungozi obunzima besibindi, ubuninzi bokungabi namandla kunye nokulingana kwezigulane ezigugile kufuneka zinciphise.
3. Ukugqithisa ingabangela ubundlobongela, iimpawu zesistim seentloko, ezifana nokungazinzi, ukuphazamiseka, ukudideka, ukuzonwabisa, ukuchithwa kwemfuyo, inkqubo yokugaya isifo sinokubakhoka isisu, isifo sohudo, isistim se-cardiovascular can tachycardia, bradycardia, uxinzelelo lwegazi oluphezulu, intlungu yesifuba. Le mveliso ayinayo i-antidote ethile, kwaye kufuneka ixhaswe ngokugqithisa.
4. Gwema ukuthatha iziyobisi xa usebenzisa le mveliso.
5. Abo banembali yengqondo yengqondo kufuneka basebenziswe ngokuqaphela.
6. Inetyhefu yokuzala ichazwa njenge-C, kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwabasetyhini abakhulelweyo kufuneka balinganise ubuhle kunye neengxaki.
7. Ukhuseleko lwamachiza kubantwana abangaphantsi kweminyaka eyi-16 aluhloliswanga.

Impendulo engalunganga

1. Iintloko zomzimba wonke, intlungu emva, iimpawu zentsholongwane, iintlungu zesifuba, ukubola, kunye nentamo yentamo.
2. I-cardiovascular hypertension, tachycardia, i-palpitations, vasodilation.
3. Inkqubo yokugaya isisu, isifo sohudo, ukunyanzelisa, umlomo owomileyo, ukulahleka kwesidlo, ukuzitywa, ukusetyenziswa kwesibindi esingaqhelekanga, ukuguqulwa kwamagama, isilonda somlomo, umlomo owomileyo, unxaniwe.
4. I-Hemolymphatic system eosinophilia.
5. I-edema yemetaboliki.
6. Inkqubo yokukhathazeka, ukuxhalala, ukukhathazeka, ukuxakeka, ukuxinezeleka, i-paresthesia, ukunyaniseka, i-hypertonia, i-dyskinesia, ukuxhatshazwa, ukuxhalaza, ukudideka, ukuxakeka, ukungazinzi ngokomzimba, ukuxakeka.
7. Inkqubo yokuphefumula i-rhinitis, i-pharyngitis, isifo seemiphunga, i-epistaxis, i-asthma.
8. Ukukhumba isikhumba, i-herpes simplex.
9. Uvakalelo oluthile lwe-amblyopia, ukungaqhelekanga okubonakalayo, ukunambitheka okutshintshileyo, intlungu yeso.
10. I-urrogenital inkqubo yokungavumelekanga ukuchama, i-hematuria, i-pyuria.

Isistim

I-Oral, 200 ~ 400mg yemihla ngemihla, ithathwe ekuseni. Umthamo wesenzo esinamandla sesibindi kufuneka sancitshiswe ku-1 / 2 yesilinganiso esiqhelekileyo.

Imiphumo ehambelanayo neziyobisi


1. I-inhibitor ye-CYP3A4 efana ne-carbamazepine, itraconazole, i-ketoconazole okanye i-phenobarbital, i-rifampicin i-CYP3A4 inducer kunye ne-modafinil ingatshintshela uxinzelelo lwegazi lwalo mveliso.
2. Lo mveliso uyi-inducer ye-CYP3A4, eyanciphisa ukuxilongwa kwegazi ye-cyclosporine nge-50% kunye nokunciphisa ingxube ye-plasma ye-theophylline.
3. Le mveliso i-CYP2C19 inhibitor evuselelekayo, eyenza ukwanda kwegazi kwi-warfarin, diazepam kunye ne-phenytoin. Le mveliso inokwandisa i-tricyclic antidepressants, i-chlorpromazine kunye ne-omeprazole. Ugxininiso lwegazi lweziyobisi ezifana ne-lansoprazole kunye nepropranolol. Xa isetyenziswe ngexesha elifanayo kunye namachiza angentla, umthamo kufuneka ulungiswe ngokufanelekileyo kwaye ukuxilongwa kwegazi kufuneka kuhlolwe.
4. Le mveliso inokunciphisa umphumo wokukhusela we-steroidal contraceptive. Amanye amanyathelo okukhusela kufuneka athathwe ngexesha lokusetyenziswa kwalo mveliso kwaye emva kwenyanga enye emva kokuyeka isilwanyana


2. Modafinil

I-Modafinil yindlela yokukhawuleza yokuvusa isetyenziselwa ukuphatha iziphazamiso ezinjengeenkathazo, ukuphazamiseka komsebenzi wokulala ukulala, kunye nokulala okugqithiseleyo okubandakanyeka nokuphazamiseka kokugula okuphazamisayo. I-Modafinil iphinda isetyenziswe ngokubanzi ngaphandle kweenkcazo njengengqinisiso yokuqonda.

Isicelo sekliniki

1. Unyango lwezonyango: i-narcolepsy yinkqubo yesifo senzwa esisisiseko esingaziwayo. Iimpawu eziphambili kukuba azikwazi ukuhlala ziphapheme okanye ziqaphile emini, kwaye zikhona iziganeko zokulala nokungahambi. Iziguli kaninzi azikwazi ukwenza izifo ezenziwe ngokwabo. Ukulala kwaye ungakwazi ukuhlala ngokuqhelekileyo. Njengoluhlobo olutsha lweziyobisi, i-Modafinil inokwenza izigulane zilahle ukulala ngenxa yemini kwaye zigcine umsebenzi oqhelekileyo, kodwa ayiyi kuba nempendulo engathandekiyo njengokonwaba okungavamile. Esona sifanelekileyo isilwanyana sokuphazamiseka kokulala. Izifundo zibonise ukuba i-modafinil inokuphucula ngempumelelo iimpawu kwaye iyanciphise kakhulu inani lokulala kunye nenani leentsuku emini ngaphandle kokuchaphazela ixesha kunye nomgangatho wokulala ebusuku. I-modalinil yomlomo ilawulwa kwizigulane ze-18 ezinezigulane ze-narcolepsy kunye nezigulane ze-24 ezinezonyango kwi-dose yemihla ngemihla ye-200-500 mg / ngosuku. Iziphumo zabonisa ukuba ubuthongo kunye nokukhathala kuboniswa kwizigulane ezinezonyango ezithandwayo kunye nezidumbu. Ukulala kwakuncitshiswe kakhulu, kunye nenani elipheleleyo le-83% kunye ne-71%, ngokulandelanayo. I-Modafinil inokukhusela i-dyskinesia yengqondo ebangelwa ukulahlwa ubuthongo, ukuphucula umsebenzi wokuqonda, kwaye ayinaso impembelelo ekuqaleni, ukugcinwa, ukuvusa nokulala ubuthongo bokulala ebusuku, kwaye ayikuchaphazeli ukuziphatha kwentsasa kunye ne-sputum yemini.

2. Unyango lwe-alcoholic organic encephalopathy syndrome: I-Modafinil ingasetyenziselwa ukuphatha unyango lwe-alcoholic encephalopathy syndrome. Abanye abantu basebenzisa i-modafinil ukunyanga i-alcoholic organic encephalopathy syndrome, kwaye baqhuba iimvavanyo zengqondo zengqondo kunye nezifundo ze-neurophysiological. Iziphumo zibonise ukuba i-modafinil yanda ukukhutshulwa emva kokuba ithathe izidakamizwa imihla ngemihla, kwaye unyango olusebenzayo lwe-kliniki lwaluyi-85%. Umlinganiselo osebenzayo wale mveliso ngu-200 ~ 400 mg ngosuku, kuthathwa kabini ekuseni kwaye phakathi.

3. Ukuphucula umphumo wokwelapha weziyobisi ezichasayo: ngenxa yobungakanani bomlutha we-modafinil wenza ukuba uthembele njengokuba kufaka ezinye izinto ezikhuthazayo, ngumntu othembisayo onxilisayo.

4. Ukunyanga kwengxaki / ukungathandabuzeki kwempilo: ubungqina beklinikhi bubonisa ukuba i-modafinil inokuphucula abantwana kunye neengxaki zokungahambi kakuhle / ukuxhatshazwa kwempilo (ADHD).

Ukungqinelana

1. Ukukhubazeka ukulungelelanisa kule mveliso.

2. I-hypertrophy ye-ventricular hypertrophy, i-ischemic electrocardiographic change, intlungu yesifuba, i-arrhythmia okanye imbonakalo yekliniki ye-mitral valve ne-recent myocardial infarction, izigulane ezingabonakaliyo ze-angina zikhutshaziwe.


3. Noopept

I-Noopept i-peptide ye-nootropic. I-Noopept ikhulisa amandla okufunda, iphucula imemori, ngelixa ihambisa impembelelo kuzo zonke izigaba zenkqubo: ukucwangciswa, ukuhlanganiswa nokufumana ulwazi. Isilwanyana sivimbela ukuphuhliswa kweemvelaphi ngenxa yokutshatyalaliswa kombane, ukungabikho kwesigaba sokulala, kunye nokukhutshwa kwezakhiwo ze-glutamatergic kunye neendawo eziphambili ze-receptor.

Umphumo we-neuroprotective we-drug Noopept uzaliswa ngokunyusa ukuxhatshazwa kwezicubu kwi-hypoxia, izilonda ezinobuthi kunye neengxaki. Kwi-model ye-thrombotic ye-stroke, i-Noopept inciphisa umthamo we-lesion, kwaye ikhusela ukufa kweeseli ze-cerebellum kunye ne-cortex ye-cerebral, echazwe kwi-neurotoxic doses ye glutamate kunye ne-oxygen ekhululekile. Ukongezelela, i-noopept iyanciphisa ubunzima be-calcium engaphezulu, ikhuthaza ukulungelelaniswa kwezibonelelo ze-rheological zegazi (ngenxa ye-fibrinolytic, i-anticoagulant kunye ne-antigregregatory action).


4. J147

I-J147 CAS 1146963-51-0 yilezi zixhobo ezisetyenziswayo kunyango lwe-Alzheimer kunye ne-dementia. Iyeza elingaziwa ngokuthi i-J147 linokuba ngumxhasi wamanje. Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ukuba luyakwazi ukunyanga isifo se-Alzheimer kunye nokuguqula ukuguga kwamagundane. Iingcali zenzululwazi nazo zikulungele ukusetyenziswa kwezi zilingo kwizilingo zabantu. Kungekudala, kwingxelo yophando eshicilelwe kwiMagazini yeAging Cell yamaphephancwadi, abaphandi beSalk Institute baveze indlela eyenziwe ngayo i-J147. Bafumene ukuba i-J147 ingaba yiprotheni kwimitochondria. Idibanisa ukukhuthaza iiseli eziguga, iigundane, kunye neziqhamane zezityalo ezikhangelelana.

Umphandi uDave Schubert uthe kule sifundo sifunene unxibelelwano phakathi kweziyobisi zeJ147 kunye nokuguga komzimba, isifo se-Alzheimer; ukukhangela iithagethi ze-J147 kunokubaluleka ekliniki yokwelapha. Ekuqaleni kwe2011, saqalisa isilwanyana J147, inguqu eguquguqukileyo ye-curry spice turmeric. Ukususela ekuphuhlisweni kwe-J147, abaphandi baye bafumanisa ukuba kunokukwazi ukuguqula iimpembelelo zememori yomntu kunye nokukhuthaza iiseli ezintsha zengqondo. Ngelo xesha, unokuphucula okanye ukuguqula isifo se-Alzheimer kwisigqeba semouse, kodwa abaphandi abazange bacacise indlela i-J147 isebenza ngayo kwinqanaba le-molecular.

Izifundo ezininzi sele zijonge umphumo we-huperzine kwi-Alzheimer's therapies. Ngelishwa, ezi ziphumo zeemvavanyo ayinanto enentsingiselo, njengamaxesha amaninzi kuphela abathathi-nxaxheba abakhoyo, okanye iindlela zokuvavanya ezivakalayo zisetyenzisiweyo.

Kuhlalutyo lweemeta lwamaphepha amaninzi okuphanda, ukuphuculwa kubonwe (kwizigulane ze-Alzheimer) kule mimandla elandelayo: izakhono zokuqonda, imeko jikelele, kunye nemisebenzi yemihla ngemihla. Ngelishwa, ngokubanzi kukho uphando oluthile kwi-pramiracetam, kodwa kwiminyaka yokugqibela ye-10, akukho sifundo esisodwa kwisicatshulwa esishicilelwe.


5. Phenylpiracetam

I-Phenylpiracetam i-agent ye-nootropic echaphazela ngokufanelekileyo amandla engqondo kwaye ithathwa njengento evuselelayo. Njengoko igama libonisa, kukuguqulwa kwepiracetam, eneqela elongezelelweyo le-phenyl.

Ngokuqinisekileyo, ngamaxesha e-20-60 anamandla (ngesiseko segrama) njengelungelo lomzali walo.

Kwisifundo ngokuthelekiswa kwezi zinto zombini, i-phenylpiracetam ibonwa njengento enamandla kunepiracetam kule mimandla elandelayo:

I-neuroprotection, anti-amnesia, kunye nokukhuthaza.

Amanye amagama: I-Fonturacetam, (RS) -2- (4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl) i-acetamide, i-phenotropil, i-carphedone

umsebenzi

Ngenxa yesakhiwo esifanayo kunye ne-phenethylamine, isakhiwo sayo seemodeli sinempahla yokuvuselela, kunokucingelwa ukuba kukho uxhulumaniso kwi-adrenaline kunye ne-dopamine receptors.

Ngokutsho kwabaphuhlisi bePhenotropil kwandisa amanqanaba alandelayo kwingqondo: ukuhamba kwegazi, i-epinephrine, i-dopamine kunye ne-serotonin. Nangona kunjalo, ayinayo impembelelo okanye ayibophelelana noGABA.

Kwiphepha lokuphanda laseMerika (kunye neendonga) kukho izibonakaliso zamanqanaba okwandisa ama-acetylcholine kunye ne-NMDA receptors, kunye nokunciphisa i-serotonin kunye ne-dopamine receptors.

Ukhuseleko kunye nemiphumo emibi


Njengazo zonke iiMisetyenzana, ziyakunyamezela ngomzimba womntu; Umngcipheko weempembelelo ezincinci ziphantsi - ngokude nje ukuba zigqitywe kwiimali ezifanelekileyo (Jonga ukungena kunye nokunyamezela).

I-Phenylpiracetam ayifanele ithathwe ngexesha lokukhulelwa okanye ukuncelisa. Kwaye kwizigulane ezinobindi okanye umonakalo wezintso kubhetele ukwenza ngaphandle.

Iziphumo eziqhelekileyo zempembelelo ezikhoyo zikhoyo, ezifana: iimvakalelo zokuxhalaba, ukucaphukisa, okanye ukubetha.

Abanye abasebenzisi babika iintloko zamakhanda. Ezi ziyakwenzeka kuzo zonke i-Racetamen, ukuba ingqondo isweleka kwe-acetylcholine. Njenge-antidote, uyongeza nje umthombo we-choline kwi-stack yakho.

utyhefu

Kwimijondolo, i-dose ebulalayo ye-880mg / kg isisindo somzimba safunyanwa, esibonisa umda okhuselekile ukhuseleko oluvela kwi-dose ephakanyisiweyo.

Ngokomvelisi, akukho zixhobo ze-tetralogic, i-mutagenic okanye i-carcinogen.


6. Sunifiram

I-Sunifiram isondelelene kakhulu ne-Racetamen kwisakhiwo sayo seekhemikhali, kwaye izabelo ezininzi zeempawu zayo ze-nootropic. Ipapashwa njengamaxesha e-1000 anamandla njengepiracetam (esekelwe kwisigama), ukuthobela ingqalelo echanekileyo, kwaye akufanele kuthatyathwe kunye nezinye nootropics kunye.

Yayilungiswa ngokuyinxalenye njengendlela ephantsi e-Unifiram.

Iinjongo zokukhuthaza imemori, ukufunda, ukucinga okucacileyo, ukugxininisa, ukukhuthazwa, umbono kunye nomoya.

Isistim: Akukho zifundo ezinentsingiselo, kodwa kwagqitywa ukuba i-5 - 10mg ngosuku ilungele abantu abaninzi.

I-sunifiram ayifanele ihlawulwe okanye ixutywe namanye ama-nootropics.

Abasebenzisi bexesha elide baxela ukunyamezela ukubunjwa, oko kutheni kufuneka kusetshenziswe kuphela ngokukhawuleza okanye kwimigudu.

Isebenza njenge-AMPA ye-agonist kwaye ikhulisa imveliso ye glutamine, kwakhona ikhupha i-acetylcholine kwi-cortex ye-cerebral.

Nangona kungekho miphumo yecandelo eye yafunyanwa ngophando, i-Sunifiram ingabangela imiphumo emibi njengobungqingili, ukusilala kunye nentloko xa kuninzi.


7. Bromantane

I-Bromantane iyakhuthaza inceda ekuphuculeni ukusebenza kwezemidlalo. Xa isetyenziswe kanye ngeveki, umzimba awufanele ube nokunyamezela okukhulu, kwaye uhlale unengxaki kwiyeza.

Kubonakala kukunciphisa imiphumo ebangelwa ubuthongo ngaphandle kokunciphisa ikhono lokuqonda. Ukongezelela, phantsi kweemeko eziqhelekileyo (xa kukho ukungabikho kokulala) kunokunyusa ukuphawula kunye nokusebenza komsebenzi.

Indlela yokwenza i-modafinil ayiqondi kakuhle. Kukholelwa ukuba ukwandisa uxinzelelo lwee-neurotransmitters ezahlukeneyo kwingqondo.

I-Bromantane ithuthukisa ukusebenza kwimiba ethile engqondweni, njengememori yokusebenza, imemori yexesha elide kunye nekhono lokucinga.

I-Bromantane inokunciphisa imiphumo yamanye amayeza ngokukhawulezisa ukuphuka kwabo. Ezi ziquka: itraconazole, ciclosporin, temazepam, amitriptyline, erythromycin.

Ukuba ama-acelliners-thinning agents ezifana ne-aspirin okanye i-warfarin athatyathwa, kufuneka uhlolisise rhoqo i-blood clotting yakho.


Inkcazelo yeDrugs

Apixaban (Eliquis): isebenzisa, ukusebenzisana, iziphumo ezibi, izilumkiso

1. Armodafinil

I-Armodafinil, imveliso yamhlophe emhlophe. Igama leKhemikhali 2 - [(R) - (i-diphenylmethyl) i-sulfinyl] acetamide enefomula yeCM 15 H 15 NO 2 S enesisindo somlinganiselo we-273.35000 kunye ne-156 kwi-158 C. I-Amofenib isichengisiso esichukumisayo kwaye isetyenziselwa ukonyango kwezidlova, ukuxinezeleka, ukulala kwe-idiopathic okanye i-narcolepsy emini.

Inombolo yeCAS: 112111-43-0

Ifomula: C 15 H 15 NO 2 S
Isisindo somzimba: 273.35000
Umgangatho ochanekileyo: 273.008200
I-PSA: 79.37000
LogP: 3.57600

Iipropicochemical properties

Ubonakala kunye neempawu: umhlophe omhlophe
Ubuninzi: 1.283g / cm 3
Inqaku lokuxuba: 156-158oC
Indawo yokubilisa: 559.1oC kwi-760mmHg
I-flash point: 292oC
Inkcazo yokurhola: 1.645
Uxinzelelo lweVapor: 1.56E-12mmHg kwi-25C

I-Pharmacological action

Le mveliso inokunyusa umsebenzi wengqondo yengqondo kumanqanaba okwelapha kunye nokwandisa umsebenzi wesifo seendawo ezahlukeneyo zobuchopho. Le mveliso ivelisa injabulo yengqondo efana nezinye iindlela eziphambili ze-nervous system stimulants, ukuphucula imvakalelo, iimvakalelo, iingcamango neemvakalelo. Isiphumo esisisiseko somveliso wale mveliso sinokungeniswa kwe-glutamine synthetase, eyanciphisa ukuveliswa kwe-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) kwaye ikhuthaza ukuxutywa kwamanzi kunye ne-energy metabolism imisebenzi yamaseli omzimba.

Pharmacokinetics

Le mveliso ikhawuleza kwaye igxininiswe ngokupheleleyo emva kokulawulwa komlomo. Uxinaniso lwe-plasma lufikelela kwinqanaba elingu-2 kwiiyure ze-4. Ukutya akuchaphazeli ukufumaneka komzimba, kodwa kunokulibaziseka ukuxothwa kwezilwanyana kunye nokulibazisa i-1 h. Le mveliso isasazwa ngokubanzi emzimbeni, ivolumu yokusabalalisa ebonakalayo malunga ne-0.9L / kg, ephakamileyo kunomzimba wonke we-0.6L / kg. I-plasma yeprotein yezinga elibophayo yi-60%, ehambelana ngokubanzi ne-albin albumin. Emva kokulawulwa kwe-200 mg ngosuku, ukuxilongwa kweziyobisi ze-plasma kwafikelela kwimeko ezinzileyo, kwaye ayizange ifuthe iiplasma zeproteyini ezibophezela i-warfarin, diazepam, kunye nepropranolol. I-Modafinil isetyenziselwa inkqubo ye-cytochrome ye-P450 ye-CYP3A4 kwisibindi. Ngoko ke, ukusetyenziswa okuhlangeneyo kwe-CYP3A4 inducer okanye inhibitor kuya kubachaphazela ukuxilongwa kwegazi kunye nobude bezenzo zalo mveliso. Le mveliso ibonakaliswe ngesibindi ukuvelisa ezimbini i-metabolites ezinkulu, i-modafinic acid kunye ne-modafinilone, ezingenayo impembelelo. I-akhawunti yeMetabolites ye-90% kunye neziyobisi ezingabonakaliyo zomzali zingaphantsi kwe-10%. Isilwanyana sidityaniswe yizintso, kwaye ukuphelisa isigamu-ubomi seziyobisi yieyure ze-10-15. Isilinganiso sokukhutshwa kwesigqirha samabhinqa abaselula sikhulu kunabaselula, kwaye izinga lokukhutshwa kwabadala liphantsi kakhulu kunelo lutsha.


2. Modafinil

Inombolo yeCAS: 112111-43-0

Ifomula: C 15 H 15 NO 2 S
Isisindo somzimba: 273.35000
Umgangatho ochanekileyo: 273.008200
I-PSA: 79.37000
LogP: 3.57600

Iipropicochemical properties

Inqaku lokuxuba: 164-166 C

I-Pharmacological action

I-Modafinil inokunyusa ukwanda kweendawo eziqhelekileyo. Ukujonga i-EEG ukusuka kwiyure yokuqala ukuya kwi-22h iyure emva kokuba i-modafinil yomlomo ibonise ukuba ixabiso le-α / θ elibonisa ukulumkisa liphezulu, kwaye i-wave-sleep sleep micro Ukulala kwabantu abathintekayo, ukungabikho kokulala kunokubangela ukuba abantu baqaphele kunye nokukwazi ukusebenza.

Ukuthatha i-modafinil kunokuphucula ngempumelelo le meko. Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ukuba emva kobusuku bokulala kokulala, ukuthatha i-200 mg ye-modafinil, amandla okwenza i-psychomotor amavolontiya ayephakame kakhulu kuneqela le-placebo; Ngexesha le-60-sleep hour sleep, zonke iiyure ze-8 i-Dalfene 200 mg isakwazi ukugcina indawo yokulala yokulala ebusweni bendawo, ukuze bahlale beqaphile kunye nokukwazi ukusebenza. I-Modafinil nayo inefuthe elithile le-neuroprotective. Kufunyenwe kwiimpawu zezilwanyana zokulimala kwengqondo ukuba i-modafinil ikwazi ukuphikisana nokuveliswa kwe-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine.

I-effect neurotoxic eyenza iimpawu zikhululeke kakhulu. Iimpembelelo ze-neuroprotective ze-modafinil nazo ziqinisekisiwe kwi-statum yokulimala imodeli kunye nenkqubo yokulimala, ngokulandelanayo. Isenzo esisisiseko se-modafinil sinxulumene nokuhla kwe-neurotransmitter engavimbelayo, iGABA, kwaye ilawulwa ngu-serotonin (5-HT) kunye ne-norepinephrine. Uphononongo lufumene ukuba i-excitatory effect ye-modafinil inokungeniswa kwenyuka kwe-glutamine synthetase, ngokunciphisa ukuveliswa kwe-GABA, nokukhuthaza ukuchithwa kwamanzi kunye ne-energy metabolism imisebenzi yamaseli enyantya.

Pharmacokinetics

Le mveliso ikhawuleza kwaye igxininiswe ngokupheleleyo emva kokulawulwa komlomo. Uxinaniso lwe-plasma lufikelela kwinqanaba elingu-2 kwiiyure ze-4. Ukutya akuchaphazeli ukufumaneka komzimba, kodwa kunokulibaziseka ukuxothwa kwezilwanyana kunye nokulibazisa i-1 h. Le mveliso isasazwa ngokubanzi emzimbeni, ivolumu yokusabalalisa ebonakalayo malunga ne-0.9L / kg, ephezulu kune-body body fluid O.6L / kg. I-plasma yeprotein yezinga elibophayo yi-60%, ehambelana ngokubanzi ne-albin albumin. Emva kokulawulwa kwe-200 mg ngosuku, ukuxilongwa kweziyobisi ze-plasma kwafikelela kwimeko ezinzileyo, kwaye ayizange ifuthe iiplasma zeproteyini ezibophezela i-warfarin, diazepam, kunye nepropranolol.

I-Modafinil isetyenziselwa inkqubo ye-cytochrome ye-P450 ye-CYP3A4 kwisibindi. Ngoko ke, ukusetyenziswa okuhlangeneyo kwe-CYP3A4 inducer okanye inhibitor kuya kubachaphazela ukuxilongwa kwegazi kunye nobude bezenzo zalo mveliso. Le mveliso ibonakaliswe ngesibindi ukuvelisa ezimbini i-metabolites ezinkulu, i-modafinic acid kunye ne-modafinilone, ezingenayo impembelelo. I-akhawunti yeMetabolites ye-90% kunye neziyobisi ezingabonakaliyo zomzali zingaphantsi kwe-10%. Isilwanyana sidityaniswe yizintso, kwaye ukuphelisa isigamu-ubomi seziyobisi yieyure ze-10-15. Isilinganiso sokukhutshwa kwesigqirha samabhinqa abaselula sikhulu kunabaselula, kwaye izinga lokukhutshwa kwabadala liphantsi kakhulu kunelo lutsha.


Ukusebenzisana kweMithi

1. I-inhibitor ye-CYP3A4 efana ne-carbamazepine, itraconazole, i-ketoconazole okanye i-phenobarbital, i-rifampicin i-CYP3A4 inducer kunye ne-modafinil ingatshintshela uxinzelelo lwegazi lwalo mveliso.

2. Lo mveliso uyi-inducer ye-CYP3A4, eyanciphisa ukuxilongwa kwegazi ye-cyclosporine nge-50% kunye nokunciphisa ingxube ye-plasma ye-theophylline.

3. Le mveliso i-CYP2C19 inhibitor evuselelekayo, eyenza ukwanda kwegazi kwi-warfarin, diazepam kunye ne-phenytoin. Le mveliso inokwandisa i-tricyclic antidepressants, i-chlorpromazine kunye ne-omeprazole. Ugxininiso lwegazi lweziyobisi ezifana ne-lansoprazole kunye nepropranolol. Xa isetyenziswe ngexesha elifanayo kunye namachiza angentla, umthamo kufuneka ulungiswe ngokufanelekileyo kwaye ukuxilongwa kwegazi kufuneka kuhlolwe.

4. Le mveliso inokunciphisa umphumo wokukhusela we-steroidal contraceptive. Amanye amanyathelo okukhusela kufuneka athathwe ngexesha lokusetyenziswa kwalo mveliso kwaye emva kwenyanga enye emva kokuyeka isilwanyana.


3. Noopept

I-Noopept ixiliswe ngokukodwa ngokubunjwa kwe-phenylacetylproline, i-cycloprolylglycine kunye ne-phenylacetic acid. Isiqingatha-ubomi se-noopept sifinyelela kwiiyure ze-0.38.

CAS NO. 157115-85-0
Ifomula ye-molecular C17H22N2O4
Isisindo somzimba 318.37

I-Noopept ayinakunyulwa emzimbeni.

Indlela yokwenziwa kwe-nootropic yesicatshulwa isekelwe kwikhono layo lokwenza i-cycloprolylglycine efana nesakhiwo kwi-dipeptide ye-antigenetic cyclic cyclic.

Ukulungiselelwa kweNoopept kuphakamisa ukuphendula kwe-transcallosal amplitude, kuququzelela ukudibanisa okudibeneyo kwinqanaba lezakhiwo ze-cortical phakathi kweengqondo ze-hemispheres.

Xa usebenzisa i-Hoenopt yezidakamizwa, ukubuyiswa kwemisebenzi yokuqonda, kuncitshiswe ngenxa ye-craneocebral trauma, ukulimala kokubeleka, kunye ne-localchemic nechem global, kuphawulwe.

Kwizigulane ezinezilonda ezinobungozi beenkqubo zesistim, umphumo we-drug Hoenopt uqala ngosuku lwe-5th-7th yonyango. Ekuqaleni kwonyango, i-anxiolytic kunye nempembelelo eminye yefuthe leHoenopt likhankanywe ngakumbi, kubandakanywa nokunciphisa ukuxhalaba nokuphucula ubuthongo kwizigulane. Emva kweeyure ze-2-3 emva kokuqala kweyeza, kukho ukuphuculwa okuphawulekayo kwimisebenzi yolwazi.
I-Noopept nayo inefuthe le-vegetomonal (inciphisa intloko, i-tachycardia kunye neengxaki ze-orthostatic).

Kuba i-Hoenopt ayiyiyo impawu ye-teratogenic, immunotoxic kunye nomutagenic. I-Noopept ayibangeli umlutha, emva kokupheliswa kweyeza kwizigulane kungekho phuhliso lokukhutshwa kwe-syndrome.

Emva kokulawulwa komlomo, i-noopept ifakwe kakuhle kwi-digestive tract. Ukufumaneka kwe-noopept kufinyelela kwi-99.7%. Icandelo elisebenzayo lingena kumngcipheko wegazi, ngelixa uxinzelelo lwalo lwamanzi e-synovial lidlula i-plasma concentrations.

Ingqwalaselo yeplasma ye-Peak ifumaneka kwii-15 imizuzu emva kokulawulwa komlomo.

Izimpawu zokusetyenziswa

I-Noopept isetyenziselwa ukunyanga izigulane zeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zeminyaka (abadala kunye nezigulane ezisebekhulile) ezijongene nokuphazamiseka kwengqondo kunye nokunyameka kwengqondo yezinto ezihlukeneyo. Ngokukodwa, i-Noopept yonyango inokumiselwa emva kokulimala kwengqondo kunye ne-coma, kunye nezigulane ezinokungafihleki kokujikeleza kwegazi (kubandakanywa nokubambezeleka kwengxaki ehlukeneyo) kunye neengxaki ze-asthenic.

I-Noopept inokumiselwa ukuphucula imisebenzi yengqondo (imemori, ukuxinaniso kunye nokukwazi ukufunda) kwizigulana ezinokunyuka ngokomzimba, ngokwengqondo nangokomxineko.

Indlela yesicelo

I-Noopept yenzelwa ukusetyenziswa komlomo. Iibhulile kufuneka zithathwe emva kokutya, kunye namanzi amaninzi okusela okanye i-tea engenasiphunga. Ekuqaleni kwonyango, njengommiselo, khetha i-10 mg ye-noopept kabini ngosuku. Kwimeko apho umphumo wokwelapha awubonakalwanga ngokwaneleyo kwaye iHoenopt yezilwanyana ixhomekeke kakuhle kwizigulane, i-dose yonyuka iya kwi-10 mg kathathu ngosuku.


4. J147

I-J147 CAS I-1146963-51-0 yowomndeni we-Racetame; Izinto eziseli qela zifana nesakhiwo, kodwa ziyahluka kwiimpawu zeekhemikhali.

Inani leCAS 1146963-51-0
Formula C18H17F3N2O2
Ubunzima beMolar 350.34 g · mol-1

Yonke imida inokuwela umnqamlezo wegazi-kwii-degrees); I-Pramiracetam ine-fatet solubility enkulu kunazo zonke ze-Racetame eyaziwayo, kwaye ixhamla ngokukhawuleza ngumzimba-mhlawumbi ngenxa yokuba uyakwazi ukugqithisa i-lipid layer.

Abanye abaphandi bacinga ukuba i-5-10x inamandla njengemithombo yayo eyaziwayo " IPiracetam ".

Ihluke kakhulu kubazalwana bakhe ngokukwazi ukunyusa ingqalelo. Ukongeza, inezinye izakhiwo zeRaetam ezifana neememori ezikhulayo kunye nokukwazi ukufunda.


5. Phenylpiracetam

Kukholelwa ukuba ukufana kwendlela kunye ne-phenethylamine kukuxanduva lomphumo wokuvuselela. Apha, uninzi lwaphando lwenziwe kuphela kubantu abanokukhathazeka kweememori ezibangelwa yimivimbo okanye ukulimala kwengqondo.

Inani leCAS 77472-70-9

Ifomula ye-molecular C 12 H 14 N 2 O 2
Ubuninzi be-Molar 218.26 g · mol -1

Izigulane ze-Encephalopathy zinikezelo lwe-200mg zibone ukuphucula izixhala, uxinzelelo kunye nokudandatheka.

Olunye uphando luye lwaluqwalasela ukuphucula kwimemori kunye nokuqwalasela.

Mhlawumbi iipropati ze-anticonbulsant kunye nezengqiqo zichaphazelekayo kwinxalenye ye-piracetam yesakhiwo se-molecular.

Nangona izazinzulu zingaqiniseki ngokuchanekileyo kwendlela yokwenza i-piracetam, bakholelwa ukuba ukunyuka kwamaseli kunye nokulawulwa kwe-glutamate kubangelwa umphumo.

Kukho iingxelo ezininzi ezivela kubasebenzisi abhekisela ekubunjweni okukhawulezayo kokunyamezela kwimpembelelo yokuvuselela i-phenylpiracetam.


6. Sunifiram

Kuyathakazelisa ukuba ezinye iinguqu ze-neurochemical ziye zaphawulwa: izilwanyana ezaziphantsi kwe-sunifiram zandise i-phosphorylation yee-molecule ezihlukahlukeneyo kwingqondo, ezihlobene ngokusondeleyo kwinkqubo yokufunda kunye nenkumbulo.

Inani leCAS 314728-85-3

Ifomula C14H18N2O2
Ubuninzi beMolar 246.304 g / mol

Izilwanyana zokulinga zahlukaniswa ngamaqela amabini: Isiqingatha esinye saholwa ku-Sunifiram, enye ingenanto. Emva koko, ikhono lokukhumbula imfuyo lihlolwe ngoncedo lwe-Y-Maze kunye nokuhlolwa kokuqatshelwa kwezinto kwenziwa.

Esi sigqibo esilandelayo safunyanwa: Izilwanyana ezinikezwa i-sunifiram zinemiphumo engcono.
I-Sunifirams isiphumo sokudandatheka: Akukho nto eyafumaneka phakathi kwamaqela amabini. Okuthakazelisayo ngokwaneleyo, ubuninzi bobu bungqina kwi-intanethi bubonisa umonakalo ochasayo.

umsebenzi

Izifundo zokuqala zichaze iindlela ezimbini zokusebenza:
1. Isakhiwo se-Sunifiram sifana nesinye se-Ampakines. Isebenza ngokusebenzisa i-AMPA receptors. Kwi sifundo semouse, izilwanyana zaqala ukunikezelwa ngumphikisi we-AMPA uNBQX. Emva kokusondeza i-Sunifiram kwizilwanyana, kubonakala ngathi iguqulela iziphumo ze-NBQX. Njengoko i-AMPA i-agonist ingakwazi ukuphucula imemori, ukukwazi ukufunda, ukuqwalasela kunye nokuqapha.
2. Ngaphandle koko, i-sunifiram ibonakala ikhulula i-acetylcholine kwi-cortex ye-cerebral. Njengengqungquthela ye-cholinergic, inokuphucula imemori yesikhashana, imemori yexesha elide kunye nezakhono zokuhamba. Ukuqinisekisa le mphumela, iimfuno ezininzi kufuneka zipapashwe.

Imiphumela

Kwisifundo esifumene nokusebenza kwe-sunifiram (i-0.001 mg / kg i-dose esebenzayo kakhulu), akukho miphumo emibi yabonwa nge-dose ejoyiweyo (iindonga) ze-1 mg / kg.

Ngelishwa, akukho zifundo zonyango, esekelwe kumava kwabanye abasebenzisi. I-General Sunifiram ingaphezu kwesilinganiselo esilungeleleneyo, kodwa akufuneki ukuba yenziwe ngaphezulu kwaye ayihlanganiswe kunye kunye nezinye nootropics.


7. Bromantane

I-Bromantane iyakhuthaza inceda ekuphuculeni ukusebenza kwezemidlalo. Xa isetyenziswe kanye ngeveki, umzimba awufanele ube nokunyamezela okukhulu, kwaye uhlale unengxaki kwiyeza.

Kucetyiswa ukuba ungathathi iBromantane ngaphezu kwama3 amaxesha ngeveki. Kananjalo ekusebenziseni ixesha elide kufuneka ukwenze ngaphandle.

I-CAS No.: 87913-26-6
Ifomula ye-molecular: C16H20BrN
Isisindo somzimba: 306.24
Ifayile ye-MOL: 87913-26-6.mol

Kubonakala kukunciphisa imiphumo ebangelwa ubuthongo ngaphandle kokunciphisa ikhono lokuqonda. Ukongezelela, phantsi kweemeko eziqhelekileyo (xa kukho ukungabikho kokulala) kunokunyusa ukuphawula kunye nokusebenza komsebenzi.

Indlela yokwenza i-modafinil ayiqondi kakuhle. Kukholelwa ukuba ukwandisa uxinzelelo lwee-neurotransmitters ezahlukeneyo kwingqondo.

I-Bromantane ithuthukisa ukusebenza kwimiba ethile engqondweni, njengememori yokusebenza, imemori yexesha elide kunye nekhono lokucinga.

I-Bromantane inokunciphisa imiphumo yamanye amayeza ngokukhawulezisa ukuphuka kwabo. Ezi ziquka: itraconazole, ciclosporin, temazepam, amitriptyline, erythromycin.

Ukuba ama-acelliners-thinning agents ezifana ne-aspirin okanye i-warfarin athatyathwa, kufuneka uhlolisise rhoqo i-blood clotting yakho.


Isishwankathelo seMicrosoft

Ziziphi i-nootropics ezingekho:

• Awuyi kuba yingqungquthela yobomi ngobusuku, njengowomabhayisikobho "Alingenamkhawulo". Cinga nje nge-supplement ongayisebenzisa ukuze uyisebenzise.
• I-Nootropics ayikho enye indawo yokutya okunempilo, ukuzivocavoca rhoqo, nokulala ngokwaneleyo.
• Kulo vavanyo lwe-IQ alindelwe ukuba lukhulu kakhulu.

Isidlo se-nootropic sisebenza njani?

Umsebenzi weNootropics ngokuguqula izinto ezilandelayo:
I-Brain metabolism, i-oxygenation yengqondo, ukufumaneka kweeseli zengqondo, ukukhula kweseli.
Impembelelo ngqo ixhomekeke kumalungiselelo.

Ziziphi iinguqu ezinokulindelwa?

Ngokuxhomekeke kwintlobo, ukuphuculwa kulindeleke kule mimandla elandelayo:
• ukukwazi ukugxila
• imemori yendawo
• ukukwazi ukufunda
• imemori yokusebenza
• Igama lomlambo / ucoceko
• Ukukwazi ukucombulula iingxaki (ukuhamba kwengcamango)

Ukongeza ekukhuleni kwe-neural kunokutshintsha okulungileyo kumgangatho wobuthongo, ukukhathazeka kokuxhalabisa, ukuxhalabisa, ukuxhala, ukwesaba, ukwethuka kunye nokukhuthaza ukuba kulindeleke.

Ingaba Nootropics Utywala?

Ukuthetha ngokuthe ngqo: cha. Ngenxa yezikhuthazo ezifana ne-caffeine, i-sulbutiamine, kunye ne-modafinil, lelinye ibali.

Ixesha de liqalise ukusebenza
Oku akunako ukuveliswa, kuxhomekeke kwimveliso, kunye nomsebenzisi. Amanqaku alandelayo aphezulu kwaye ayahluka.

Izishukumisi / abavuki (i-caffeine, i-modafinil, njl njl.) - ngaphakathi kwe-30 imizuzu ukuya kwiiyure eziliqela.

I-Nutrient Based Nootropics (Creatine, Omega-3) - Ngokuqhelekileyo kwi-4 kwiiveki ze-8.

IPiracetam Ngaphakathi kwe2 - iiveki ze-4. Uvavanyo lokugijima kufuneka lwenziwe ubuncinane kwiiveki ezimbini.


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