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Umhlaza wemiphunga

    1. Yintoni umhlaza wemiphunga?
    2. Zithini iintlobo zomhlaza wemiphunga?
    3. Ziziphi iimpawu xa unomdlavuza wemiphunga?
    4. Ndingazi njani ukuba ndinomhlaza wemiphunga?
    5. Yintoni amanqanaba omhlaza wam wemiphunga?
    6. Kutheni ndinomhlaza wemiphunga?
    7. Uwunyanga njani umhlaza wamaphaphu?

 

Yintoni umhlaza wemiphunga?

Umhlaza ungaqala nakweyiphi na indawo emzimbeni. Umhlaza oqala emphungeni ubizwa ngokuba ngumhlaza wemiphunga. Iqala xa iiseli zemiphunga zikhula ngaphandle kolawulo kwaye zixinanise iiseli eziqhelekileyo. Oku kwenza ukuba kube nzima ukuba umzimba usebenze ngendlela efaneleke ngayo.

Iiseli zomhlaza zinokusasazeka ziye kwamanye amalungu omzimba. Iiseli zomhlaza emiphungeni ngamanye amaxesha zinokuya kwingqondo kwaye zikhule apho. Xa iiseli zomhlaza zisenza oku, kubizwa ngokuba yi-metastasis. Koogqirha, iiseli zomhlaza kwindawo entsha zibukeka ngokufana nezo zisuka emphungeni.

Umhlaza uhlala ubizwa ngegama apho uqala khona. Ke xa umhlaza wamaphaphu usasazeka kwingqondo (okanye nayiphi na enye indawo), kusabizwa ngokuba ngumhlaza wemiphunga. Ayibizwa ngokuba ngumhlaza wobuchopho ngaphandle kokuba iqala kwiiseli zobuchopho.

Qaphela: Imiphunga zii-2 njengeziponji ezinamalungu afunyanwa esifubeni. Umphunga wasekunene unamalungu ama-3 abizwa ngokuba ngamalobes. Umphunga wasekhohlo unee-2 lobes. Imiphunga izisa umoya ngaphakathi nangaphandle komzimba. Bathatha ioksijini kwaye balahle icarbon dioxide, imveliso eyinkunkuma.

Umbhobho womoya, okanye itrachea, uzisa umoya ezantsi emiphungeni. Yahlulahlula ibe ziityhubhu ezi-2 ezibizwa ngokuba yi-bronchi (ityhubhu enye ibizwa ngokuba yi-bronchus).

 

Umhlaza wemiphunga

Zithini iintlobo zomhlaza wemiphunga?

Umhlaza oqala emiphungeni kuthiwa ngumhlaza wamaphaphu wokuqala. Umhlaza onwenwela kwimiphunga ukusuka kwenye indawo emzimbeni waziwa ngokuba ngumhlaza wesibini wamaphaphu. Eli phepha malunga nomhlaza wamaphaphu wokuqala.

Zimbini iindlela eziphambili zomhlaza wemiphunga. Ezi zihlelwa luhlobo lweeseli apho umhlaza uqala ukukhula. Bazi:

Umhlaza wemiphunga ongekho mncinci (I-NSCLC) - eyona fomu iqhelekileyo, ukubalwa ngaphezulu kwe-87% yamatyala. Inokuba lolunye lweentlobo ezintathu: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma okanye enkulu-cell carcinoma.

Umhlaza wesifo semiphunga esincinci (SCLC) - ifom engaqhelekanga exhaphake kakhulu kunesifo somhlaza wamaphaphu ongesosincinci.

Uhlobo lomhlaza wemiphunga omisele ukuba loluphi unyango olucetyiswayo.

 

Ziziphi iimpawu xa unomdlavuza wemiphunga?

Abantu abanomdlavuza wamaphaphu abanakho ukuba neempawu kude kube kamva. Ukuba iimpawu ziyavela, zinokufana nesifo sokuphefumla.

 

Umthombo othembekileyo unokubandakanya:

Ukutshintsha kwelizwi lomntu, njengokubhodla

▪ Ukosuleleka rhoqo esifubeni, njenge-bronchitis okanye inyumoniya

▪ ukudumba kwiindawo ezisesifubeni kumbindi wesifuba

▪ Isikhohlela esiqalisa ukuba mandundu

▪ iintlungu esifubeni

▪ ukuphefumla kancinci kunye nokubethana

 

Ekuhambeni kwexesha, umntu unokufumana iimpawu ezibi kakhulu, ezinje:

▪ Ubuhlungu besifuba

▪ Intlungu yethambo kunye nokwaphuka kwamathambo

▪ yintloko ebuhlungu

▪ Ukukhohlela igazi

▪ amahlwili egazi

▪ ukuncipha kokutya, ukunciphisa umzimba

▪ ukudinwa

 

Umhlaza wemiphunga

 

Ndingazi njani ukuba ndinomhlaza wemiphunga?

Ugqirha ukubuza imibuzo malunga nempilo yakho kwaye wenza uvavanyo lomzimba. Ukuba iimpawu zikhomba kumhlaza wemiphunga, kuya kwenziwa ezinye iimvavanyo.

Nazi ezinye zeemvavanyo onokuzidinga:

I-xst ray: Oku kuhlala kuvavanyo lokuqala olwenziwe ukukhangela amabala kwimiphunga yakho. Ukuba utshintsho luboniwe, uyakufuna iimvavanyo ezingaphezulu.

CT scan: Oku kukwabizwa ngokuba kukuvavanywa kwe-CAT. Luhlobo olukhethekileyo lwe-x-ray ethatha imifanekiso eneenkcukacha zangaphakathi yakho. Izikena ze-CT zinokusetyenziselwa ukunceda ukwenza i-biopsy (jonga ngezantsi).

PET yokuhlola: Kolu vavanyo, unikwa uhlobo lweswekile olunokubonwa ngaphakathi komzimba wakho ngekhamera ekhethekileyo. Ukuba kukho umhlaza, iswekile ibonakala “njengeendawo ezishushu” apho umhlaza ufumaneka khona. Inokukunceda xa ugqirha wakho ecinga ukuba umhlaza usasazekile, kodwa akazi ukuba uphi.

I-Bronchoscopy: Ityhubhu ebhityileyo, ekhanyisiweyo, eguqukayo idluliselwa emlonyeni wakho kwi-bronchi. Ugqirha unokujonga ngombhobho ukufumana amathumba. Umbhobho ungasetyenziselwa ukwenza i-biopsy.

Ukuhlolwa kwegaziUvavanyo lwegazi alusetyenziselwa ukufumana umhlaza wemiphunga, kodwa lwenziwa ukuxelela ugqirha ngakumbi ngempilo yakho.

 

Umhlaza wemiphunga

 

Yintoni amanqanaba omhlaza wam wemiphunga?

Ukuba unomdlavuza omncinci wesifo somhlaza, ugqirha uya kufuna ukufumanisa ukuba usasazeke kangakanani. Oku kubizwa ngokuba yistage. Usenokuba ukhe weva abanye abantu besithi umhlaza wabo wawuku "isigaba sesi-2" okanye "isigaba se-3" Ugqirha wakho uya kufuna ukufumana inqanaba lomhlaza wakho ukukunceda uthathe isigqibo sokuba loluphi uhlobo lonyango olulungele wena.

Inqanaba lichaza ukusasazeka komhlaza ngemiphunga. Ikwaxela nokuba umhlaza unwenwele kumalungu akufuphi okanye kumalungu akude.

Inqanaba lakho linokuba libakala loku-1, 2, 3, okanye 4. Okukhona lisezantsi inani, kokukhona umhlaza usasazekile. Inani eliphezulu, elikwinqanaba lesi-4, lithetha umhlaza omkhulu osasazeke ngaphandle kwemiphunga yakho. Qiniseka ukuba ubuza ugqirha malunga nenqanaba lomhlaza wakho kwaye kuthetha ntoni.

 

(1) Amanqanaba omhlaza wesifo semiphunga ongekho mncinci

Iingcali zokhathalelo lwempilo zisebenzisa ubukhulu besisu kwaye zisasazeke ukuchaza amabakala omhlaza wesifo semiphunga ongekho mncinci, ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

Ubugqi, okanye obufihliweyoUmhlaza awubonakali kwimifanekiso yokucinga, kodwa iiseli ezinomhlaza zinokuvela kwi-phlegm okanye kwi-mucus.

Isigaba 0: Kukho iiseli ezingaqhelekanga kuphela kumaleko aphezulu eeseli ezikumgaqo womoya.

Isigaba 1: Ithumba likhona emiphungeni, kodwa ziisentimitha ezi-4 (cm) okanye ngaphantsi kwaye alinwenwanga kwamanye amalungu omzimba.

 Isigaba 2I-tumor i-7 cm okanye ngaphantsi kwaye inokuthi isasazeke kwizicubu ezikufutshane kunye ne-lymph nodes.

Isigaba 3Umhlaza usasazeke kwii-lymph node kwaye wafikelela kwezinye iindawo zemiphunga nakwimimandla ejikelezileyo.

Isigaba 4Umhlaza unwenwele nakumalungu omzimba akude, njengamathambo okanye ingqondo.

 

(2) Amanqanaba Of Small Cell Lung Ci-ancer

Umhlaza omncinci wesifo somhlaza uneendidi zawo. Amanqanaba aziwa ngokulinganiselwa kwaye abanzi, kwaye abhekisa ekubeni umhlaza usasazekile ngaphakathi okanye ngaphandle kwemiphunga.

Kwinqanaba elilinganiselweyo, umhlaza uchaphazela icala elinye kuphela lesifuba, nangona inokuba sele ikho kwezinye ii-lymph node. Phantse isinye kwisithathu sabantu abanolu hlobo bafumanisa ukuba banomhlaza xa ukwinqanaba elilinganiselweyo. Iingcali zokhathalelo lwempilo zinokuyinyanga ngonyango lwemitha njengendawo enye.

Kwinqanaba elibanzi, umhlaza usasazeke ngaphaya kwelinye icala lesifuba. Inokuchaphazela eminye imiphunga okanye amanye amalungu omzimba. Phantse ezibini kwisithathu sabantu abanesifo somhlaza esincinci semiphunga bafumanisa ukuba banaso xa sele sele sikwinqanaba elibanzi.

 

Kutheni ndinomhlaza wemiphunga? 

Umhlaza uvela emva kokonakala kwemfuza kwi-DNA kunye notshintsho lwe-epigenetic. Olu tshintsho luchaphazela imisebenzi yesiqhelo yeseli, kubandakanya ukwanda kweseli, inkqubo yokufa kweeseli (apoptosis), kunye nokulungiswa kwe-DNA. Njengoko umonakalo omkhulu uqokelela, umngcipheko womhlaza uyanda.

Ezi zizathu zikhokelela kumhlaza wemiphunga ngokwasemzimbeni:

Kutheni ndinomhlaza wemiphunga

 

 

Ukutshaya

Asingabo bonke abantu abatshayayo abanomhlaza wemiphunga, kwaye ayinguye wonke umntu onomhlaza wemiphunga otshaya. Kodwa akukho mathandabuzo ukuba ukutshaya yeyona nto inobungozi, ebangela i-9 kwezi-10 zomhlaza womthombo wemiphunga othembekileyo. Ukongeza iisigarethi, icuba kunye nokutshaya kombhobho kukwanxulunyaniswa nomhlaza wemiphunga. Okukhona utshaya kwaye uqhubeka utshaya, kokukhona likhulu ithuba lakho lokuba nomhlaza wemiphunga.

Akunyanzelekanga ukuba utshaye ukuze uchaphazeleke. Ukuphefumla abanye abantu kwandisa umngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga. Ngokwe-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC) Umthombo othembekileyo, umsi ophefumlelweyo onoxanduva lokufa kwabantu abangama-7,300 XNUMX ngonyaka e-United States.

Iimveliso zecuba ziqulethe ngaphezu kweekhemikhali ezingama-7,000, kwaye ezingama-70 ubuncinane ziyaziwa ukuba zibangela umhlaza.

Xa uphefumla umsi wecuba, lo mxube weekhemikhali uhanjiswa ngqo kwimiphunga yakho, apho uqala kwangoko ukudala umonakalo.

Imiphunga inakho ukulungisa umonakalo ekuqaleni, kodwa ukuqhubeka kwethishu yemiphunga kuba nzima ukuyilawula. Kulapho iiseli ezonakeleyo zinokutshintsha kwaye zikhule zingalawuleki. Iikhemikhali ozingenisayo nazo zingena kwigazi lakho kwaye ziqhutywa kuwo wonke umzimba wakho, zandisa umngcipheko wezinye iintlobo zomhlaza. Abantu ababetshaya ngaphambili basemngciphekweni wokuba nomhlaza wemiphunga, kodwa ukuyeka ukuwunciphisa loo mngcipheko kakhulu. Kwiminyaka eli-10 yokuyeka, umngcipheko wokufa ngenxa yomhlaza wemiphunga wehla ngesiqingatha.

 

Irhasi yeradon

I-Radon yirhasi engenambala kwaye engenavumba eveliswa kukuqhekeka kwe-radium enemisebe, ethi yona ibe yimveliso yokubola ye-uranium, efumaneka kuqweqwe loMhlaba. Imveliso yokubola kwemitha ichaphazela izinto zemfuza, zibangela utshintsho olwenzeka ngamanye amaxesha lube ngumhlaza. I-Radon ngoyena nobangela uqhelekileyo wesifo somhlaza wemiphunga e-US, esenza ukuba kufe abantu abangama-21,000 ngonyaka. Umngcipheko unyusa i-8-16% kwi-100 Bq / m³ nganye kwi-radon. yomhlaba kunye namatye. Malunga nelinye kumakhaya ali-15 e-US anamanqanaba eeradon ngaphezulu kwesikhokelo esinconywayo seepikoko ezingama-4 kwilitha nganye (pCi / l) (148 Bq / m³).

 

Asbestos

I-Asbestos inokubangela iintlobo zezifo zemiphunga ezinje ngomhlaza wemiphunga. Ukutshaya icuba kunye ne-asbestos zombini zineziphumo ezihambelanayo kuphuhliso lomhlaza wemiphunga. Kwabantu abatshayayo abasebenza ne-asbestos, umngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga unyuswe izihlandlo ezingama-45 xa kuthelekiswa noluntu ngokubanzi.I-Asbestos inokubangela umhlaza we-pleura, obizwa ngokuba yi-mesothelioma- eyahluke mpela kumhlaza wemiphunga.

 

Ukumoshwa komoya

Izinto ezingcolisa umoya zangaphandle, ngakumbi iikhemikhali ezikhutshwe kukutsha kwezibaso, zonyusa umngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga. Iifom zetyhefu (PM2.5) kunye neesulphate aerosols, ezinokuthi zikhutshwe kwimisi yokuphuma emoyeni, zinxulunyaniswa nomngcipheko owandiswe kancinci. Kwi nitrogen dioxide, ukonyuka okunyukayo kwamalungu ali-10 ngebhiliyoni kwandisa umngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga nge-14% .Ungcoliseko lomoya lwangaphandle kuqikelelwa ukuba lubange i-1-2% yomhlaza wemiphunga.

Ubungqina besikhashana buxhasa umngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga ukusuka kukungcoliseka komoya ongaphakathi ngokunxulumene nokutshiswa kweenkuni, amalahle, ubulongwe, okanye intsalela yezityalo yokupheka kunye nokufudumeza. Lo mngcipheko uchaphazela malunga ne-2.4 yezigidigidi zabantu kwihlabathi liphela, kwaye kukholeleka ukuba oko kubangela i-1.5% yokufa komhlaza wemiphunga.

 

Genetics

Phantse i-8% yomhlaza wemiphunga ubangelwa zizinto ezizuzwe njengelifa, kwizihlobo zabantu abafunyaniswa benomhlaza wemiphunga, umngcipheko uphindwe kabini, mhlawumbi ngenxa yokudityaniswa kwemfuza. I-Polymorphism kwii-chromosomes 5, 6, kunye ne-15 ziyaziwa ukuba zichaphazele I-single-nucleotide polymorphisms (i-SNPs) yamajoni afaka i-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) - i-CHRNA5, i-CHRNA3, kunye ne-CHRNB4-zezabo zinxulunyaniswa nomngcipheko okhulayo womhlaza wemiphunga, kunye ne-RGS17-uhlobo Ukulawula umqondiso we-G-protein.

 

omnye izizathu

Ezinye izinto ezininzi, imisebenzi, kunye nokuchazwa kwendalo esingqongileyo kunxulunyaniswe nomhlaza wemiphunga. I-Arhente yaMazwe ngaMazwe yoPhando ngomhlaza (IARC) ithi bukhona "ubungqina obaneleyo" bokubonisa ukuba oku kulandelayo kubangela umdlavuza emiphungeni:

Ezinye izinyithi (ukuveliswa kwealuminium, icadmium kunye necadmium compounds, i-chromium (VI) compounds, i-beryllium kunye ne-beryllium compounds, i-iron kunye ne-iron founding, i-nickel compounds, i-arsenic kunye ne-inorganic arsenic compounds, kunye ne-undermathed hematite komhlaba.

Ezinye iimveliso zokutsha (ukungagqitywa komlilo, amalahle (ukukhutshwa kwangaphakathi kokutshiswa kwamalahle asekhaya), igesi yamalahle, i-tar-tar pitch, i-coke production, i-soot kunye ne-diesel exhaust)

Imitha ye-Ionizing (X-ray kunye ne-gamma).

Ezinye iigesi eziyityhefu (i-methyl ether (inqanaba lobuchwephesha), kunye ne-bis- (chloromethyl) ether, isalfard mustard, iMOPP (vincristine-prednisone-nitrogen mustard-procarbazine mix)

Ukuveliswa kwerabha kunye nothuli lwesilika.

Kukho ukwanda okuncinci kumngcipheko womhlaza wemiphunga kubantu abachaphazeleka yistlerosis.

 

Uwunyanga njani umhlaza wamaphaphu? 

Zininzi iindlela zokunyanga umhlaza wemiphunga. Utyando kunye nemitha zisetyenziselwa ukunyanga umhlaza kuphela. Azichaphazeli wonke umzimba. Iziyobisi ze-Chemo, unyango ekujoliswe kulo, kunye ne-immunotherapy zihamba kuwo wonke umzimba. Banokufikelela kwiiseli zomhlaza phantse naphi na emzimbeni.

 

Unyango lomhlaza wemiphunga unokubandakanya utyando, imitha, ichemotherapy, unyango ekujoliswe kulo, kunye ne-immunotherapy. Isicwangciso sonyango esilungele wena siya kuxhomekeka:

▪ Inqanaba lomhlaza

▪ Ithuba lokuba uhlobo lonyango luncede

▪ Iminyaka yakho

▪ Ezinye iingxaki zempilo onazo

▪ Iimvakalelo zakho ngonyango kunye neziphumo ebezingalindelekanga ezinokuza nalo.

 

Umhlaza wemiphunga

 

Izigulana ezininzi ezinomhlaza wemiphunga zikhetha unyango lweziyobisi kwinqanaba lokuqala, kuba yeyona ndlela ithe ngqo nelula yokulawula ukusasazeka kweeseli zomhlaza. La machiza alandelayo aqhelekileyo asetyenziselwa ukunyanga umhlaza wemiphunga (i-SCLC kunye ne-NSCLC):

 

I-AZD-3759 (i-CAS: 1626387-80-1)

I-AZD-3759 yinto enamandla yokukhula kwe-epidermal factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, enokubakho kwimisebenzi ye-antineoplastic. I-AZD-3759 ibophelela kwaye inqanda umsebenzi we-EGFR kunye neendlela ezithile eziguqukayo ze-EGFR. Oku kuthintela ukutyikitywa kwe-EGFR, kwaye kungakhokelela ekungenisweni kokubola kweseli kunye nokuthintela ukukhula kwethumba kwiiseli ze-EGFR-overexpressing.

Iziyobisi zomhlaza wemiphunga AZD 3759

 

❷ IGefitinib (i-CAS: 184475-35-2)

I-Gefitinib yi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor esetyenziswa njengonyango lodidi lokuqala ukunyanga i-cell carcinoma (non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) ehlangabezana neendlela ezithile zokuguqula imizila yemfuza.

IGefitinib sisithinteli se-epidermal ukukhula factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase ebopha indawo ebopha i-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ye-enzyme. I-EGFR ihlala iboniswa ukuba icinezelwe kakhulu kwiiseli ezithile ze-carcinoma, ezinje ngemiphunga kunye neeseli zomhlaza wamabele. Ukugxininisa kukhokelela ekusebenziseni okuphuculweyo kwe-Ras-anti-apoptotic sign signal transduction cascades, ethi ikhokelele ekusasazeni kweeseli zomhlaza kunye nokwanda kweseli okungalawulwayo. IGefitinib sisixhobo sokuqala sokukhetha i-EGFR tyrosine kinase ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-Her1 okanye i-ErbB-1. Ngokuthintela i-EGFR tyrosine kinase, iindawo ezisezantsi ezityikityiweyo ziyathintelwa, zikhokelela ekwandeni kwesifo esibi.

 

I-AZD-9291(ICAS: 1421373-65-0)

I-AZD-9291 ikwabizwa ngokuba yi-Osimertinib eyi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor esetyenziselwa unyango lweentlobo ezithile ze-cell carcinoma engeyiyo encinci.

I-AZD-9291 yi-epidermal ukukhula factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) ebophelela kwiifom ezithile eziguqukayo ze-EGFR (T790M, L858R, kunye ne-exon 19 yokususa) ekhokelela kwisisu somhlaza wesifo semiphunga esingengomncinci (NSCLC) kulandela unyango kuqala -Iimigca ye-EGFR-TKIs. Njengesizukulwane sesithathu se-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, i-AZD-9291 icacile kugcino-gadi T790M utshintsho olwandisa umsebenzi wokubopha we-ATP kwi-EGFR kunye neziphumo zesifo esingalunganga sesifo esikwinqanaba lokugqibela. Ngapha koko, i-AZD-9291 ibonakalisiwe ukuba ilondoloze uhlobo lwasendle lwe-EGFR ngexesha lonyango, ngaloo ndlela kuncitshiswa ukubopha okungachazwanga kunye nokuthintela ityhefu.

Iziyobisi zomhlaza wemiphunga AZD 9291

 

Acom IDacomitinib (i-CAS: 1110813-31-4)

I-Dacomitinib lunyango olusetyenziselwa ukunyanga umhlaza wesifo somhlaza esincinci kunye ne-EGFR exon 19 ukususwa kwe-exon 21 L858R endaweni. I-Dacomitinib, eyilelwe njenge (2E) -N-16-4- (piperidin-1-yl) kodwa-2-enamide, yinxalenye yomlomo ekhetheke kakhulu ye-quinazalone yesigaba sesibini se-tyrosine kinase inhibitors ezibonakaliswa kukungazibopheleli okubophayo Idomeyini ye-ATP yommandla wokukhula kwe-receptor yommandla we-kinase domains. I-Dacomitinib lunyango lonyango lwe-non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Sisithintelo esikhethiweyo nesingenakuguqulwa se-EGFR.

 

Er ICeritinib (i-CAS: 1032900-25-6)

I-Ceritinib ikwabizwa ngokuba yi-LDK378 ebizwa ngokuba yi-antineoplastic kinase inhibitor esetyenziselwa ukunyanga i-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -imosstatic metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) kwizigulana ezinempendulo engonelanga yonyango okanye ukunganyamezelani kwi-crizotinib.

I-Ceritinib isetyenziselwa unyango lwabantu abadala abane-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) -i-metastatic metastatic non-small cell cancer cancer (NSCLC) elandelayo ukusilela (yesibini ukumelana okanye ukunganyamezelani) kwonyango lwangaphambi kwexesha lwe-crizotinib. Phantse i-4% yezigulana ezine-NSCLC zinokuhlengahlengiswa kwakhona kwe-chromosomal eyenza i-fusion gene phakathi kwe-EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-Related protein-like 4) kunye ne-ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), ekhokelela kwimisebenzi ye-kinase enegalelo kwi-carcinogenesis kwaye ibonakala iqhuba i-phenotype enobungozi. I-Ceritinib inefuthe lonyango ngokuthintela i-autophosphorylation ye-ALK, phosphorylation ye-ALK-Mediated ye-protein esezantsi ye-STAT3, kunye nokwanda kweeseli zomhlaza ezixhomekeke kwi-ALK. Ukulandela unyango nge-crizotinib (isizukulwana sokuqala se-ALK inhibitor), uninzi lwamathumba lukhulisa ukunganyangeki ngamachiza ngenxa yotshintsho kwizintsalela eziphambili zomgcini-masango we-enzyme. Oku kwenzeka kwakhokelela kuphuhliso lwenoveli yesibini-inhibitors ye-ALK inhibitors efana ne-ceritinib yokoyisa ukumelana ne-crizotinib. I-FDA yamkele i-ceritinib ngo-Epreli 2014 ngenxa yenqanaba lokuphendula ngokumangalisayo (56%) ukuya icrizotinibamathumba anganyangekiyo kwaye ayinyule njengenqanaba leziyobisi lenkedama.

 

❻ Afatinib (i-CAS: 439081-18-2)

I-Afatinib yiarhente ye-antineoplastic esetyenziselwa ukunyanga umhlaza wamaphaphu wesifo somhlaza esingasasebenziyo (NSCLC) kunye notshintsho lwe-EGFR olunganyangekiyo okanye ukumelana ne-chemotherapy esekwe kwiplatinam.

I-Afatinib yi-4-anilinoquinazoline tyrosine kinase inhibitor ngohlobo lwetyuwa ecekeceke efumaneka njengegama likaBoehringer Ingelheim elinguGilotrif. Ukusetyenziswa komlomo, iipilisi ze-afatinib lunyango lokuqala (lokuqala) lonyango kwizigulana ezinesifo somhlaza wesifo somhlaza esingeyonto encinci (NSCLC) esineempawu eziqhelekileyo zokukhula kwesifo se-epidermal factor (EGFR) njengoko kufunyenwe kuvavanyo oluvunyiweyo lwe-FDA 4. IGilotrif ( afatinib) yimveliso yokuqala ye-oncology evunyiweyo ye-FDA evela eBoehringer Ingelheim.

 

❼ U-Erlotinib (i-CAS: 183321-74-6)

U-Erlotinib ngu I-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor isetyenziselwa ukunyanga umhlaza othile wesifo semiphunga okanye umhlaza wepancreatic we-metastatic. Yeyodidi lweziyobisi ezaziwa ngokuba yi-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Isebenza ngokuthintela ukusebenza kweprotein ebizwa ngokuba yi-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). I-EGFR ifunyenwe kumphezulu weeseli zomhlaza kunye neeseli eziqhelekileyo. Isebenza njenge "eriyali," ifumana imiqondiso evela kwezinye iiseli nakwimeko-bume exelela iseli ukuba ikhule ize yahlule. I-EGFR idlala indima ebalulekileyo ekukhuleni nasekukhuleni ngokwasemzimbeni nangaphakathi ebuntwaneni kwaye inceda ukugcina ukubuyisela okuqhelekileyo iiseli ezindala nezonakalisiweyo kubantu abadala. Nangona kunjalo, iiseli ezininzi zomhlaza zinezixa ezikhulu ngokungaqhelekanga ze-EGFR kumphezulu wazo, okanye i-EGFR yazo itshintshiwe ngokutshintsha kweDNA ephethe ikhowudi yemfuza yeprotein. Isiphumo kukuba imiqondiso evela kwi-EGFR yomelele kakhulu, ekhokelela ekukhuleni kakhulu kweeseli kunye nokwahlukana, uphawu lomhlaza.

Onke la machiza anokubonelelwa ngu aasraw kwifom yomgubo esulungekileyo, eyenzelwe kuphela injongo yophando. Wamkelekile ukuba unxibelelane ne-aasraw ukuba ufuna ulwazi ngakumbi malunga nendlela yokuthenga iziyobisi zomhlaza wemiphunga!

 

isingqiniso

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